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RHIZOFILTRATION

Rhizofiltration is primarily used to remediate extracted groundwater, surface water, and waste water with low contaminant concentrations. Rhizofiltration defined as the use of plants, both terrestrial and aquatic, to absorb, concentrate, and precipitate contaminants from polluted aqueous sources in their roots. Rhizofiltration can be used for Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cr, which are primarily retained within the roots

RHIZOFILTRATION
Rhizofiltration dikenal juga dengan nama Hydroponic System. Process goal-nya juga termasuk kategori remediation. Medianya, pumped or surficial water stream. Mechanism-nya phytostabilization, phytoaccumulation, evapotranspiration. Typical contaminant berupa metal dan juga radionucleid.

Rhizofiltration

Figure. Flow through rhizofiltration system. The system contains 812 weeks-old sunflower plants with roots immersed in flowing contaminated water.

Rhizofiltration pada intinya adalah memindahkan kontaminan dari air dan aliran limbah cair (run off pertanian, industrial discharges, nuclear material processing).

Rhizofiltration
Mekanisme Adsorpsi dan Absorbsi oleh akar tanaman memegang peran penting dalam rhizofiltrasi ; dan akar dengan luas permukaan yang luas lebih dianjurkan. Terrestrial plant are preferred because they have a fibrous and much longer root system, increasing the amount of root area.

Sunflower, indian mustard, tobacco, rye, spinach and corn have been studied for their ability to remove lead from water, with sunflower having the greatest ability.

Beberapa aplikasi Rhizofiltration


Epcot Center, suatu sistem tertutup dengan cara recirculating nutrients telah dikenalkan sebagai salah satu kegiatan rhizofiltrasi yang digabungkan dengan biofiltrasi menggunakan beberapa spesies tertentu (Negri and Hinchman, 1996). Rhizofiltrasi juga diterapkan di San Fransisco Bay ; bekerjasama dengan Chevron membangun sebuah wetland constructions yang mampu memindahkan hampir 89% Se yang mengkontaminasi perairan tersebut dari kegiatan industri oil refinery.

Beberapa aplikasi Rhizofiltration Rhizofiltration


The water flowing into the wetland was measured to have 2030 g/lt Se, while the outflow from the wetland had less than 5 g/lt (Hansen et al., 1998). Pada studi di San Joaquin Valley (Gao et al., 2003), a flow through wetland system was constructed with cells containing either a single species, or a combination of species [Schoenoplectus robustus, Juncus balticus, Spartina alterniflora, Polypogon monspelliensis, Distichlis spicata, Thypa latifolia, and Ruppia maritima]. Four years after planting, comprehensive analysis showed that 59% of the Se remained in the wetland, mostly in the organic detrital layer and surface sediment, 35% in the outflow, 4% in the seepage and 2% to volatilization.
Menunjukkan bahwa wetland plant uptake of Se varies with species type dan
tumbuhan yang berwarna biru diatas adalah tumbuhan pada skala percobaan yang berpotensi melakukan high uptake Se (Gao et al., 2003).

Rhizofiltration

Gambar diatas menunjukkan suatu mekanisme sederhana rhizofiltrasi dengan menggunakan spesies tumbuhan pada suatu kolam buatan untuk menurunkan tingkat akumulasi logam berat Hydroponic system. The cost of remediation by rhizofiltration has been estimated to be $26 per 1000 gallons of water.

Penelitian di Indonesia (1)


Rhizofiltrasi kromium dan keragaman komunitas rhizobakteri pada tanaman air (Anna Safarrida S2 program) Tujuan : mengetahui ketahanan dan serapan tanaman air terhadap Cr ; keragaman komunitas rhizobakteri tanaman air yang dipapar Cr ; dan isolasi identifikasi rhizobakteri yang tahan Cr. Menggunakan 4 tanaman (Pistia stratiotes, Eichornia crassipes, Lemna minor, dan Salvinia minor) ditumbuhkan pd medium buatan (Hoagland) yang dipasok 0, 1, 2, 4 dan 8 ppm Cr. Selanjutnya tanaman juga diujikan lebih lanjut dlm limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit.

Penelitian di Indonesia (2)


Kemampuan toleransi dan serapan tan thd Cr didasarkan pd pengamatan morfologi dan analisis kadar Cr dlm biomass. Keragaman komunitas rhizobakteri dianalisis mell pendekatan culture independent dan dependent ; koloni2 yg berbeda pd culture dependent diseleksi ketahanannya thd Cr dan dianalisis keragamannya dg Rep-PCR. Isolat yg terpilih diidentifikasi berdasar sekuen parsial gen 16S rDNA. P.stratiotes dan Salvinia sp. Berturut-turut mempunyai ketahanan dan serapan paling rendah dan paling tinggi thd Cr dibanding tanaman lain.

Penelitian di Indonesia (3)


Pd pendekatan culture independent dan dependent, paparan Cr menurunkan keragaman komunitas rhizobakteri, baik pd P.stratiotes maupun Salvinia sp, dimana keragaman tertinggi justru di Salvinia sp. Hasil pengujian ketahanan thd Cr diperoleh 6 isolat rhizobakteri yg tahan hingga 40 ppm ; dan berhasil diidentifikasi sebagai Aeromonas sp, Rhodococcus fascians, Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas mosselii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens dan Brevibacterium sp.

Advantages of Rhizofiltration
Readily absorbs metals The ability to use both terrestrial and aquatic plants for either in situ or ex situ applications. Contaminants do not have to be translocated to the shoots. Species other than hyperaccumulators may be used.

Disadvantages of Rhizofiltration
Applicable for treatment of water only. Metals are concentrated in plant biomass and must be disposed of eventually (~there is periodic harvesting and plant disposal). Constant need to adjust pH. Plant may first need to be grown in a greenhouse or nursery. Tank design must be well engineered, Good understanding of the chemical speciation / interaction is needed.