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HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
Hydraulic fluids act as working fluid or bearing media which have functions : 1. Transmit power 2. Lubricate moving parts 3. Seal clearances mating parts 4. Dissipate heat

Quality Requirements of Hydraulic Fluids


Good lubricity Ideal viscosity Chemical stability High degree of incompressibility Good heat transfer capability Low density Foam resistance Low volatility Compatibility with system materials Fire resistance Non-toxicity

FLUIDS : Liquids and Gases


Parameter Liquid Gas

Volume
Shape

Has its own volume


Takes shape of container but only to its volume Incompressible

Volume is determined by container


Takes shape of container

Compressibility

Readily compressible

Liquids are: Slightly compressible, DV f(DP) Viscous (high viscosity) Viscosity decreases with temperature increase

Gases are: Compressible, DV = f(DP) Low viscosity Viscosity increases with temperature

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIQUID AND GAS

COMPRESSION OF LIQUIDS

If a downward force is applied to the piston in the gas cylinder, the piston will move down and compress the gas If a downward force is applied to the piston in the liquid cylinder, the piston will not move.

Closed cylinder containing air (gas)

Closed cylinder containing hydraulic fluid (liquid)

Circulation Cools the System

SPECIFIC WEIGHT, DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY


Weight = F = mg

Where

Berat Jenis (Weight Density, )

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND MASS DENSITY

Effects of Specific Gravity


Specific gravity is an important factor to consider when sizing a pump. The specific gravity of your liquid can affect the output pressure of a pump a heavier liquid requires greater force than water (or a lighter liquid) to be lifted an identical vertical height.

Specific Gravity
The graph below compares the column heights needed to exert an equal pressure for liquids having different specific gravities. A 100-ft column of water (specific gravity of 1.0) exerts a pressure of 43.0 psi, while an 83ft column of brine (a heavier liquid) and a 133ft column of gasoline (a lighter liquid) are needed to exert the same pressure.

PRESSURE AND HEAD

PRESSURE DEVELOPED BY COLUMNS OF OIL

TEKANAN ATMOSFER

TEMPERATURE COMPARISON

Absolute Temperature K = C + 273 Absolute Temperature R = F + 460

CONTOH CONTOH SOAL

BULK MODULUS

VISCOSITY AND VISCOSITY INDEX

Measuring Absolute Viscosity

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY,

HUBUNGAN ANTARA DAN SUS

MEASURING KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

Saybolt Viscosimeter

VISCOSITY INDEX
Is relative measure of oils viscosity change with respect to temperature change

Viscosity Index Definition

Optimal Viscosity

Oil Range of Operation

Viscosity Chart