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AS PE Anatomy & Physiology

James Barraclough Lesson 2: Bones

Aims: Skeleton & Bones


Objectives: ALL will be able to identify: O Bones of Axial skeleton O Bones of Appendicular skeleton O Functions of bones

Activity 1
Using homework answers, on next slide take turns to label bones. MAKE NOTES OF ANY YOU DONT HAVE: O Colour AXIAL SKELETON blue O Colour APPENDICULAR SKELETON red O ALSO: which is following views of skeleton is:
O ANTERIOR? O POSTERIOR?

ANSWERS
206 bones in human body O AXIAL: 80 bones
O Cranium (29 bones in head) O Thorax (25 in total: sternum & 24 ribs) O Vertebral column (26 bones: 24 vertebrae, sacrum &

coccyx) O Bonus point: what are 5 sections of spine called? (Cute Teddies Love Some Cuddles NEXT SLIDE)
O APPENDICULAR (the rest!): 126 bones
O 2 Clavicles & 2 scapulae (English names?) O Arms (2 Humerus, 2 ulna & 2 radius ) O Hands (16 carpals, 10 metacarpals, 2 sesamoid & 28

phalanges) O Pelvis (2 coxae ilium, ischium & pubis bones fused together) O Legs (2 femurs, 2 patella, 2 tibia & 2 fibula) O Feet (14 tarsals, 10 metatarsals, 28 phalanges & 4 sesamoid

Activity 2
Function of bones In pairs, using following headings give brief description to classmates (5 minutes) http://www.aschool.us/random/ O Lever system O Attachment of muscles O Protection O Shape O Support O Blood cells O Mineral store

Answers
O Leverage: skeletal system allows movement by co-ordinated O

O O

action of muscles on bones, providing leverage muscles pull on bones to act as levers & movement occurs at joint Attachment of muscles: parts of skeleton (usually flat bones) provide surface for muscles to attach allowing movement to occur (levers) Protection: skeleton protects vital tissues/organs e.g.: Skull protects brain; ribs protect heart/lungs); Vertebral column protects spinal cord; Pelvis protects abdominal & reproductive organs Shape/Support: skeleton gives body shape. Provides framework for soft tissues (muscles, etc.) & prevent it from collapsing in heap Blood cells: bones not solid - inside long bones are BONE MARROW which produce & replace white (generally in shafts of long bones) & red blood cells (generally at ends of longs bones & some flat bones) Mineral store: skeleton acts as MINERAL RESERVE (e.g. calcium) vital for bone growth & health. Minerals transported round body when needed for growth/repair (e.g. injury)

Types of bone
5 types of bone: O Long O Short O Flat O Irregular O Sesamoid Way bones arranged in body allows them to perform certain functions The role bone performs determines size, shape & density ACTIVITY 3: in pairs complete the table

Bone type Description Function Long Longer than it is wide!

Example

Short

Approximately as wide as they are long

Flat

Flat!

Irregular

Sesamoid

Irregular in shape & dont fall into other categories Usually short/ irregular bones embedded in tendons

Bone type Long

Description Longer than it is wide!

Function Levers Blood cell production

Short Flat

Approximately as wide as they Support & stability, little movement are long Flat! Protection Muscle attachment Various, depends on location

Irregular

Irregular in shape & dont fall into other categories

Sesamoid

Usually short/ irregular bones Protects tendon as embedded in tendons passes over joint

Examples
Long Bones: O Arms: Humerus, radius & ulna O Legs: Femur, tibia, fibula O Hands & feet: Metacarpals, phalanges & metatarsals Short bones: O Tarsals & calcaneum feet; carpals hands Irregular bones: O Vertebrae; jawbone (mandible); cheekbone Flat bones: O Cranium, clavicle, scapula, sternum, ribs, pelvis Sesamoid bones: O Patella, pisiform (in wrist), 1st metatarsal bone has 2 sesamoid bones as connects to big toe

Recap

Bones Dominoes ALSO: write down e-mails for me to send lesson resources

Next Lesson
Joints: O Classifications (fixed, cartilaginous, 6 synovial) O Movements applicable to sport

HOMEWORK: research & make notes on above in preparation for lesson