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AS PE

Lesson 4: Test Answers

Swap papers & mark out of 89

1. Study of bodys STRUCTURE 2. Study of how body WORKS/ FUNCTIONS 3. 206 4. Anterior is front view:

4. Posterior is rear view 5. & 7. axial bones are cranium, thorax (ribs & sternum), vertebral column 6. Axial = 80; appendicular = 126 8. Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx

Question 9
1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

Leverage: skeletal system allows movement by co-ordinated action of muscles on bones, providing leverage Attachment of muscles: parts of skeleton (usually flat bones) provide surface for muscles to attach Protection: skeleton protects vital tissues/organs e.g. skull protects brain Shape/Support: skeleton gives body shape. Provides framework for soft tissues (muscles, etc.) & prevent it from collapsing in heap Blood cells: bones not solid - inside long bones are BONE MARROW which produce & replace white (generally in shafts of long bones) & red blood cells (generally at ends of longs bones & some flat bones) Mineral store: skeleton acts as MINERAL RESERVE (e.g. calcium) vital for bone growth & health. Minerals transported round body when needed for growth/repair (e.g. injury)

10. Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid 11. Place where 2 or more bones meet 12.
Joint Degree of movement Fixed Slightly moveable Freely moveable Examples Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Cranium Thoracic vertebrae Elbow

Question 13
Joint
Hinge Ball & socket

Example
Elbow, knee Shoulder, hip

Type of movement
Extension, flexion Abduction, adduction, rotation, extension, flexion circumduction Rotation, flexion, extension Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction Plantar flexion, dorsi flexion Pronation, supanation, flexion, extension

Sporting example

Pivot

Neck

Saddle

Thumb

Gliding/plane

Between tarsals

Condyloid/ellipsoidal

Between radius & carpals

Homework
1. Research the major muscles of the body 2. What do terms origin & insertion mean? 3. Describe the 3 types of muscle