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# The 741 opAmp

## DC and Small Signal Analysis

Jeremy Andrus
For Engineering 332
May 15, 2002
Prof. Ribeiro
Overview: Five Parts of the 741
Biasing Currents
Input Stage
Second Stage
Output Stage
Short Circuit Protection
Overview: 741 Schematic
Q2
Q19
Vo
R11
50k
Q21
Q12
R10
40k
Q10
R9
50k
Q5
H
I
R8
100
Cc
30p
Q6
R5
39k
Q13a
Q9
R2
1k
Q1
R3
50k
R7
27k
Q16
Q14
Q20
Q8
Q13b
Q23 Q3
Vin+
Q22
Q24
Q15
R1
1k
Q7
Q17
Q18
L
O
Q4
R6
27k
Vin-
R4
5k
Q11
Biasing Current Sources
Generates the reference bias current
through R5
Q10
Q9
Q12
R5
39k
R4
5k
Q11
Q8
Biasing Current Sources:
DC Analysis
The opAmp reference current is given by:
I
ref
V
CC
V
EB12
V
BE11
V
EE

( )

R
5
For V
cc
=V
ee
=15V and V
BE11
=V
BE12
=0.7V,
we have I
REF
=0.73mA
Input Stage
The differential pair, Q1 and Q2 provide the main input
Transistors Q5-Q7 provide an active load for the input
Q6
Q3
Q1
Q7
Q5
R1
1k
Vin- Vin+
Q4
R3
50k
R2
1k
Q2
Input Stage:
DC Analysis - 1
Assuming that Q10 and Q11 are
matched, we can write the equation from
the Widlar current source:
V
T
ln
I
REF
I
C10
|

\
|
|
.
I
C10
R
4

## Using trial and error, we can solve for

I
C10
, and we get: I
C10
=19A
Input Stage:
DC Analysis -2
From symmetry we see that I
C1
=I
C2
=I,
and if the npn | is large, then I
E3
=I
E4
=I

Analysis continues:
Input Stage:
DC Analysis -3
Analysis of the active load:
Second (Intermediate) Stage
Transistor Q16 acts as an emitter-follower giving
this stage a high input resistance
Capacitor Cc provides frequency compensation
using the Miller compensation technique
Q13b
R9
50k
Q13a
Q16
Q17
Cc
30p
R8
100
Second Stage:
DC Analysis
Neglecting the base current of Q23, I
C17

is equal to the current supplied by Q13b
I
C13b
=0.75I
REF
where |
P
>> 1
Thus: I
C13b
=550uA=I
C17
Then we can also write:
V
BE17
V
T
ln
I
C17
I
S
|

\
|
|
.
618mV
I
C16
I
E16
I
B17
I
E17
R
8
V
BE17
+
R
9
+ 16.2A
Output Stage
Provides the opAmp with a low output resistance
Class AB output stage provides fairly high current load
capabilities without hindering power dissipation in the IC
Q15
Q18
Q23
Q21
Q14
Vo
Q19
R7
27k
R6
27k
Q20
R10
40k
Output Stage:
DC Analysis
Q13a delivers a current of 0.25I
REF
, so we
can say: I
C23
=I
E23
=0.25I
REF
=180A
Assuming V
BE18
= 0.6V, then I
R10
=15A,
I
E18
=180-15=165A and I
C18
=I
E18
=165A
I
C19
=I
E19
=I
B18
+I
R10
=15.8A
Short Circuit Protection
These transistors are normally off
They only conduct in the event that a large
current is drawn from the output terminal (i.e. a
short circuit)
R11
50k
Q24
Q22
DC Analysis Summary
Q1 9.5 Q8 19 Q13b 550 Q19 15.8
Q2 9.5 Q9 19 Q14 154 Q20 154
Q3 9.5 Q10 19 Q15 0 Q21 0
Q4 9.5 Q11 730 Q16 16.2 Q22 0
Q5 9.5 Q12 730 Q17 550 Q23 180
Q6 9.5 Q13a 180 Q18 165 Q24 0
Q7 10.5
DC Collector Currents of the 741 (mA)
741 opAmp Simulation: Schematic
Q2
0
Q19
Vo
R11
50k
Q21
Q12
R10
40k
Q10
R9
50k
Inverting Amplifier with a gain of 20
Rf eedback1
1k
Rf eedback2
20k
Q5
H
I
Vo
L
O
R8
100
Cc
30p
Q6
H
I
R5
39k
Q13a
Q9
R2
1k
Vcc
15Vdc
Vee
-15Vdc
Vin
FREQ = 1k
VAMPL = 1mV
VOFF = 0V
Q1
R3
50k
R7
27k
Q16
Q14
Q20
Vin-
Q8
Q13b
Q23 Q3
Vin+
Q22
Q24
Q15
R1
1k
Q7
Q17
Q18
L
O
Q4
R6
27k
Vin+
Vin-
R4
5k
0
Q11
741 opAmp Simulation: Input
Time
0s 1.0ms 2.0ms 3.0ms 4.0ms
V(Vin:+)
-1.0mV
-0.5mV
0V
0.5mV
1.0mV
1mV Amplitude
741 opAmp Simulation: Output
Time
0s 1.0ms 2.0ms 3.0ms 4.0ms
V(Vo) - 28.234mV
-20mV
0V
20mV
Inverted output
20mV Amplitude
Conclusions
The 741 is a versatile opAmp that can be
used in a multitude of different ways

When you break it down into the different
components, its operation is actually
understandable and comprehendible