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•Defined NURSING “the act of utilizing
the environment of the patient to assist
him in his recovery”.
• 5 environmental factors
-Fresh air
-Pure water
-Efficient drainage
-Light and direct sunlight

•Considered a clean, well-ventilated,

quiet environment essential for
•Deficiencies in these 5 factors
produce illness or lack of health, but
with a nurturing environment, the
body could repair itself.
•Defined Nursing: “The act of assisting
others in the provision and management
of self-care to maintain/improve human
functioning at home level of

•Focuses on activities that adult

individuals perform on their own behalf to
maintain life, health and well-being.

•Has a strong health promotion and

maintenance focus.
Cont’n OREM
• 3 related concepts
• Self care- activities an Individual performs independently
throughout life to promote and maintain personal well-
• Self-care deficit – results when self-care agency
(Individual’s ability) is not adequate to meet the known self-
care needs.
• Nursing System – nursing interventions needed when
Individual is unable to perform the necessary self-care
e) Wholly compensatory- nurse provides entire self-care for
the client.
Example: care of a new born, care of client recovering from
surgery in a post-anesthesia care unit
• Partial compensatory – nurse and client perform care, client
can perform selected self-care activities, but also accepts
care done by the nurse for needs the client cannot meet
Example: Nurse can assist post operative client to ambulate,
Nurse can bring a meal tray for client who can feed himself
i) Supportive-educative – nurse’s actions are to help the client
Virginia Henderson’s
Definition of the Unique

Function of Nursing
Defined Nursing: “Assisting the individual,
sick or well, in the performance of those
activities contributing to health or it’s
recovery (or to peaceful death) that an
individual would perform unaided if he had
the necessary strength, will or knowledge”.
• Identified 14 basic needs :
3. Breathing normally
4. Eating and drinking adequately
5. Eliminating body wastes
6. Moving and maintaining desirable position
7. Sleeping and resting
8. Selecting suitable clothes
9. Maintaining body temperature within
normal range
10. Keeping the body clean and well-groomed
11. Avoiding dangers in the environment
12. Communicating with others
13. Worshipping according to one’s faith
14. Working in such a way that one feels a
sense of accomplishment
15. Playing/participating in various forms of
16. Learning, discovering or satisfying the
Madeleine Leininger’s
Transcultural Care Theory
and Ethnonursing
•Nursing is a learned humanistic and scientific
profession and discipline which is focused on
human care phenomena and activities in
order to assist, support, facilitate, or enable
individuals or groups to maintain or regain
their well being (or health) in culturally
meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help
people face handicaps or death.
•Transcultural nursing as a learned subfield or
branch of nursing which focuses upon the
comparative study and analysis of cultures
with respect to nursing and health-illness
caring practices, beliefs and values with the
goal to provide meaningful and efficacious
nursing care services to people according to
their cultural values and health-illness
•Focuses on the fact that different cultures
have different caring behaviors and different
Callista Roy’s Adaptation
•Viewed humans as Biopsychosocial
beings constantly interacting with a
changing environment and who cope
with their environment through
Biopsychosocial adaptation
•Focuses on the ability of Individuals.,
families, groups, communities, or
societies to adapt to change.
•The degree of internal or external
environmental change and the person’s
ability to cope with that change is likely
to determine the person’s health
•Nursing interventions are aimed at
promoting physiologic, psychologic, and
social functioning or adaptation.
Martha Roger’s Concept of Science
of Unitary Human Beings, and
Principles of Homeodynamics

•Nursing is an art and science that is

humanistic and humanitarian. It is directed
toward the unitary human and is concerned
with the nature and direction of human
development. The goal of nurses is to
participate in the process of change..

•Nursing interventions seek to promote

harmonious interaction between persons and
their environment, strengthen the wholeness
of the Individual and redirect human and
environmental patterns or organization to
achieve maximum health.
• 5 basic assumptions:
1. The human being is a unified whole,
possessing individual integrity and
manifesting characteristics that are more
than and different from the sum of parts.
2. The individual and the environment are
continuously exchanging matter and energy
with each other
3. The life processes of human beings evolve
irreversibly and unidirectionally along a
space-time continuum
4. Patterns identify human being and reflect
their innovative wholeness
5. The individual is characterized by the
capacity for abstraction and imagery,
Hildegard Peplau’s
Interpersonal Relations
•Defined Nursing: “An
interpersonal process of
therapeutic interactions
between an Individual who is
sick or in need of health
services and a nurse
especially educated to
recognize, respond to the
need for help.
•Nursing is a  “maturing force
and an educative instrument”
Identified 4 phases of the Nurse – Patient

– Orientation – individual/family has a “felt need” and

seeks professional assistance from a nurse (who is a
stranger). This is the problem identification phase.
– Identification – where the patient begins to have
feelings of belongingness and a capacity for dealing
with the problem, creating an optimistic attitude from
which inner strength ensues. Here happens the
selection of appropriate professional assistance.
– Exploitation – the nurse uses communication tools to
offer services to the patient, who is expected to take
advantage of all services.
– Resolution – where patient’s needs have already been
met by the collaborative efforts between the patient
and the nurse. Therapeutic relationship is terminated
and the links are dissolved, as patient drifts away from
identifying with the nurse as the helping person.
Lydia Hall’s Key Concepts
of Three Interlocking
Circles Theory
•Nursing is participation in
care, core and cure aspects of
patient care, where CARE is
the sole function of nurses,
whereas the CORE and CURE
are shared with other
members of the health team.
•The major purpose of care is
to achieve an interpersonal
relationship with the individual
that will facilitate the
development of the core.
Dorothy Johnson’s Key
Concepts of Behavioral
Each individual has
patterned, purposeful,
repetitive ways of
acting that comprises a
behavioral system
specific to that
Faye Glenn Abdellah’s
Concept of Twenty One
Nursing Problems
• Nursing is broadly
grouped into 21
problem areas to
guide care and
promote the use of
nursing judgement.
• Nursing is a
service that is based
on the art and science
and aims to help
people, sick or well,
21 Nursing Problems
1. To maintain good hygiene.
2. To promote optimal activity; exercise, rest and sleep.
3. To promote safety.
4. To maintain good body mechanics
5. To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen
6. To facilitate maintenance of nutrition
7. To facilitate maintenance of elimination
8. To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance
9. To recognize the physiologic response of the body to disease conditions
10. To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions
11. To facilitate the maintenance of sensory functions
12. To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings and reactions
13. To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and illness.
14. To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and non-verbal communication
15. To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationship
16. To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals
17. To create and maintain a therapeutic environment
18. To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying needs.
19. To accept the optimum possible goals
20. To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness.
21. To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors
Imogene King’s Goal
Attainment Theory

Nursing is a process of action, reaction,

and interaction whereby nurse and
client share information about their
perception in the nursing situation
Jean Watson’s The
Philosophy and Science of
•Nursing is concerned with promotion
health, preventing illness, caring for the
sick, and restoring health.

•Nursing is a human science of persons

and human health-illness experiences that
are mediated by professional, personal,
scientific, esthetic and ethical human care

• She defined caring as a nurturant way or

responding to a valued client towards
whom the nurse feels a personal sense of
commitment and responsibility. It is only
demonstrated interpersonally that results
in the satisfaction of certain human needs.
Caring accepts the person as what he/she
may become in a caring environment
Carative Factors:
1. The promotion of a humanistic-altruistic
system of values
2. Instillation of faith-hope
3. The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and
4. The development and acceptance of the
expression of positive and negative feelings.
5. The systemic use of the scientific problem-
solving method for decision making
6. The promotion of interpersonal teaching-
7. The provision for supportive, protective and
corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and
spiritual environment
8. Assistance with the gratification of human
Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s
Theory of Human Becoming

Nursing is a scientific
discipline, the practice of
which is a performing art
Three assumption about
Human Becoming
1. Human becoming is freely choosing
personal meaning in situation in the
intersubjective process of relating
value priorities
2. Human becoming is co-creating
rhythmic patterns or relating in
mutual process in the universe
3. Human becoming is co-transcending
multidimensionally with emerging