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Chapter 5: Construction Process

by Azman Jaafar

Project Format
The construction industry is generally focused on the production of a single and unique end product. The product of construction industry is a facility that is usually unique in design and method of fabrication. It is a single one-off item that is stylized in terms of its function, appearance and location.

Project Development
Construction projects develop in a clearly sequential or linear fashion. The general steps involved are as follows:
A need for a facility is identified by the owner. Initial feasibility and cost projections are developed. The decision to proceed with conceptual design is made, and a design professional is retained.

Project Development
The conceptual design and scope of work are developed to include an approximate estimate of cost. The decision is made to proceed with the development of final design documents, which fully define the project for purposes of construction. Based on the final design documents, the project is advertised and proposals to include quotations for construction of the work are solicited.

Project Development
Based on proposals received, a constructor is selected and a notice to the constructor to proceed with the work is given. The proposal and the acceptance of the proposal on the part of the owner constitute the formation of a contract for the work. The process of constructing the facility is initiated. Work is complete and the facility is available for acceptance and occupancy.

Project Development
In complex projects, a period of testing decides if the facility operates as designed and planned. This period is typical of industrial projects and is referred to as project start-up. The facility operates and is maintained during a specified service life. The facility is disposed of if appropriate or maintained in perpetuity.

Process
A process is defined as a system of operations in the design, development, and production of something, such as a project. A process is a series of actions, changes, or operations that bring about an end result cost, schedule, technical performance objectives. A process is that it is a course or passage of time in which something is created an ongoing movement or progression. (Ireland & Iceland, 2002)

Construction Processes
The process of purchase begins with a client who has need for a facility. The nature of risk is influenced by this process of purchasing construction. In construction, since the item purchased is to be produced, there are many complex issues which can lead to failure to complete the project in a functional and/or timely manner.

Managing the Project Life Cycle


Phase 1 Conceptual Phase Determine that a project is needed. Establish goal. Estimate the resources that the organization is willing to commit. Sell the organization on the need for a project approach. Make key personnel appointment.
Cleland & King, 1983

Phase 2 Planning phase Define the project organization approach. Define projects target. Prepare the schedule for execution phase. Define and allocate tasks and resources. Build the project team.

Phase 3 Execution phase Perform the work of the project (i.e. design, construction, production, site activation, testing, delivery, etc.).

Phase 4 Termination Assist in transfer of project product. Transfer human and nonhuman resources to other organizations. Transfer or complete commitments. Terminate project. Reward personnel.

Construction Process
The construction process may be subdivided into the stages considered below:
1. Conceptual stage: the client identifies the need for the item of construction and appoints and briefs consultants who study the clients requirement, propose an outline of the design and assess the feasibility of the project. 2. Design stage: the concept of the project is further developed and production information and contract documentation prepared. Tenders are called.

Construction Process
3. Construction stage: production programmes are prepared and construction carried out on site. 4. Operation and maintenance stage: the completed building or works is maintained, repaired or altered as required over the course of its life.

Activities at Various Stages of a construction project


Substage Activities

Inception

Client considers project requirements, acquires land, sets up project team, appoints and briefs architect/engineer.

Outline Members of the design team develop proposals brief, consider the technical and functional feasibility of the clients intentions, make general proposals for the project including form, layout, height and floor area, Architect applies for outline planning approval.

Activities at Various Stages of a construction project


Substage Activities

Scheme Design

Detailed design

Architect/Engineer finalises brief, and with other consultants, prepares sketch designs which are submitted to the client for approval. Design team prepares the full design of the project and all relevant production information and contract documentation. Architect applies for building plan approval.

Activities at Various Stages of a construction project


Substage Activities

Tender

Project planning

Invites tenders. Quantity Surveyor evaluates the tenders and report to client. Recommends to Client. Client signs a contract with the successful bidder. Prepares a programme for the project and mobilises resources for construction on sie.

Activities at Various Stages of a construction project


Substage Activities

Site Main Contractor and subcontractors Operation transform the production information into a physical facility. Members of the design team supervise construction. Architect/engineer issues payment certificates periodically on the recommendation of the Quantity Surveyor. Site Meeting. On completion, Architect, applies for a temporary occupation license. Application for a final certificate.

Activities at Various Stages of a construction project


Substage Activities

Operation All faults becoming evident during the defects liability period are made good by the contractor. Quantity surveyor prepares the final account for the project. Clients arranges for the management and maintenance of the facility.
George Ofori, 1990

On time and within budget


A quality facility on time and within budget

Construction Process
The construction process involves the translation of a clients needs and intentions. Then prepare documentations; cost plan, BQ, Specifications, Drawings. Finally, the construction phase.

Construction Process
Pre-Construction Activities
Feasibility study Outline Conceptual Design Stage Preliminary Design Stage Design Development Stage (Working Drawing) Completion of Working Drawings

Activities During Construction


Construction Supervision
Preliminaries Demolition Excavation and foundation Concrete and brickwork Finishes M&E works External works

Activities During Construction


Construction Activities Variation Order Progress Payment Certificate of Practical Completion (CPC) Certificate of Fitness (CF)

Site Preparation
Site clearing Earthwork Setting Out & Levelling Hoarding Dewatering systems Temporary buildings Access

Detail Process
1. Decision of a client in order to invest or not. 2. The client acquires a piece of land for project development. 3. The client will engage professionals to prepare documentation including drawings, specifications, a form of contract, BQ. All about consultancy works.

Key Players
The owner/Employer The designer/Estimator
Architect/Planner C&S Engineers M&E Engineers QS

The constructor
Main Subcont.

Clients
Initiator of the construction process. Will be financing the project. An employer May be the public and private sectors.

Parties Involved in the Construction Industry

Public Sector

CLIENT

Private Sector

AUTHORITIES

CONSULTANTS Project Management Consultant Planner Architect Engineers; C&S, M, E Quantity Surveyor Land Surveyor Interior Designer Landscape Architect

Federal State Local FINANCIER

Bank Finance Company Credit Corporation Leasing Company

Main Contractor

SUPPLIER

CONTRACTOR

Nominated Supplier Manufacturer Vendor Distributor

MANPOWER

Domestic Sub Contractor Nominated Sub Contractor

Administration Site Management Site Worker

The process will be organised into the sequence of activities/works differ from one project to another.

Construction Site Management


Work Programme
The first stage, which is best commenced by referring to the initial draft programme submitted at tender stage.
Includes time schedule for all major activities in the contract. Critical activities, early start time, early completion time, milestones. Sequence of works.

Project Planning and Control


Objectives
- To arrange the activities appropriately - To make a realistic time scheduling - To make a resources estimation and planning - To implement time and cost controlling - To ease the contract administration

Planning
What are we aiming for and why? In the execution of this function, the organizations mission, objectives, goals, and strategies are determined.

Control
Construction monitored by Project Manager. Based on work programme as planned vs. actual progress. IT - Microsoft project & Primavera (sometime Excel). Cash Flow (Financial Progress) Inspection & Observation (Physical Progress).

WHY THERE HAS TO BE A PLAN?


INTERNAL (STRATEGIC) OR EXTERNAL (CLIENTS REQUEST) TO AVOID RISK

TO TRACK PROGRESS
TO MAKE CORRECTION

WHY SCHEDULE?
To communicate the construction plan To establish production goal To monitor and measure progress To manage change

INTRODUCTION
The task of monitoring and controlling help to determine the objectives are within reach Monitoring and control has to start at early stage of the project development since it has more impact on cost Focusing on monitoring and control at the construction stage since many acknowledge of its difficulty

MONITORING and CONTROL


Monitoring is comparing the planned against actual Using software can easily be updated and preparation of reports are standardised Several methods used to monitor the work progress these include time weightage, cost weightage, man-days and quality Most common is using cost weightage

Progress Curves
Table 3.4 Combination between S-Curves and Bar Charts

No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Description
1 Mobilization Foundation Excavation Diversion Stage Foundation Grouting Dam Concrete Install Outlet Gates Prestress Radial Gates Spillway Bridge Curtain Grout Dismantle Plant, Clean Up Install Trash Racks 2 3 4

Month
5 6 7 8 9 10
100

Original Schedule

Actual progress

Cumulative progress (%)

Project Controlling Procedure


Project plan Project implementation

Measurement Of work performance

Project control

Project updating

- What performance measures should be selected? - What data should be used to estimate the current value of each performance measure? - How should raw data be collected, from which sources, and in what frequency? - How should the data be analyzed to detect current and future deviations? - How should the results of the analysis be reported, in what format, to whom, and how often?
Figure 3.12 Project Controlling Procedure

Project Controlling
Design

Main office Procurement

Project Site
Implementation of Project Controlling

Constructio n Subcontrac t

Figure 3.13 Implementation of Project Controlling in Construction Project

Elements of Project Controlling


Forecasting

Tools

Elements of Project Controlling

Budget

Milestone

Action Plan

Figure 3.14 Elements of Project Controlling

Gantt Chart: The Gantt chart (invented by Henry L. Gantt in 1900's) is a bar chart presentation showing a horizontal bar for each task, the length of the bar representing the duration of the task. Figure below presents a Gantt Chart generated by Microsoft Project.

Construct Bar Chart


Layout? Time unit? Workdays or calendar days? Continuous or non-continuous

Bar Charts Limitations


Advantages Easy to prepare Easy to understand Good communication tool Disadvantages Do not show interrelationship Difficult to documentation and manage project

Time Controlling
Factors causing delay in construction project Procurement of resources which is not on schedule Inappropriate work capacity Low productivity Ineffective project management There are some redesign and extra work to the project Bad communication among parties involved in project Inefficient decision making Force majeur, etc.
Need an effective supervision

Suggestion of Practices
Some of the practices can be incorporated in the monitoring and control process system these include:
Daily monitoring Morning discussion with the foreman Afternoon discussion Discussion the resources requirement every forth nightly Using bonus system to improve productivity Using damages clause to control supplier and subcontractor

The Planning & Scheduling Process


IDENTIFY THE PROJECT ACTIVITIES

EXTIMATE DURATION OF ACTIVITY

DEVELOPED THE PROJECT PLAN

SCHEDULE PROJECT ACTIVITIES

REVIEW AND ANALYSE THE SCHEDULE

YES IMPLEMENT OK?

NO

Historical Background
During world war 1, Henry L.Gantt develop a graphical technique of displaying bar type line upon specific time. The technique was known as Bar Chart. In 1956 E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company developed network concept known as Critical Path Method Booz Allen & Hamilton develop Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Scheduling software application are Primavera, Microsoft Project, Artemis, Timeline etc

Choice of Scheduling Method


Factors that governed the choice of the technique are: Familiarity on the technique to be used Type and size of project Purpose of scheduling

Familiarity on the technique to be used


A planner should not engaged any technique which he has a limited knowledge on its application Main objective of the schedule as a communication tool Important to have a schedule technique which is acceptable by all parties.

Type and Size of the Project


Project with few but repetitive tasks Line of Balance Medium to Large Project (Critical Path Method) like Precedence Method or Arrow Diagram Small Project Gantt Chart or Bar Chart

Purpose & Important of Schedule


Claim Project time and cost control Allocate project resources more efficiently As a monitoring tool Material delivery at site Storage all material cannot put in the site (confined space) Avoid delay of the work and activity. Minimize the cash flow as min as possible such as order material stage by stage depend on the work needed. To guide fabricate (roofing, steel etc) Control human resources and machinery To give confidence to the client especially when bidding process. To improve the efficiency of the operation through the efficient use of resources and cost control. Basic schedule for endorsement.

ACTIVITY DEFINED
FIVE CHARACTERISTICS Must consume time Mostly consume resourse Have a defineable start and finish Measurable

ACTIVITY IDENTIFICATION
THINGS TO BE REVIEWED Plans and specification Agreement Contract conditions BQ Other information

ACTIVITY IDENTIFICATION
CRITERIA FOR BREAKING DOWN PROJECTS: WHAT? WHERE? WHO? WHEN? HOW?

ACTIVITY DETAIL

DEPENDS ON THE FOLLOWING:


>Purpose Complexity

>Philosophy
>Information

>Responsibility
>Effect of detail

ACTIVITY DESCRIPTIONS
CONCISE AND CLEAR MAY USE SCOPE AND LOCATION ALWAYS HAVE THE SAME MEANING LEGIBLE AND UNDERSTANDABLE CONSISTENT USE STANDARD ABBREVIATION

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES (WBS)


A PLANNING TOOL AND NOT A SCHEDULING METHOD BREAKS A PROJECT DOWN INTO GREATER DETAIL BY LEVEL ORGANISES WITHOUT SCHEDULING PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK FOR ORGANISING AND ORDERING ACTIVITIES

Work Sequence
Stages of construction activity. Normally from site clearing until project handover. Logical sequence of activities. Needs an experience and knowledge during planning and scheduling process.

AKTIVITI

MAS A 4

MINGGU 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Bersih Tapak

Korek Asas Pasang Tetulang Asas Tuang Konkrit Asas

Penambakan

Pasang Acuan Tiang Pasang Tetulang Tiang Tuang Konkrit Tiang

Kerja Bata Jumlah

4 36 1 1 2 3 3 6 3 9 4 13 4 17 5 22 5 27 4 31 3 34 1 35 1 36

Jumlah Mingguan Jumlah Terkumpul (Dirancang) Jumlah Terkumpul

Act. ID 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 Rough HVAC

Description Rough Electrical Shingles Ext siding Ext finish carpentry Hang drywall Finish drywall Cabinets Ext paint Internal finish carpentry Internal paint Finish plumbing Finish HVAC Finish electrical Flooring Grading and landscaping

Duration (days) 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 2 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 4

Successors 1300 1000 1000, 1600, 2700 20000 1500 1800 1900, 2400, 2500 2100, 2300 2200 2200 2600 2200 2200 2200 2800 2800

2800

Punch list

A SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION: WITHIN BUDGET


ON TIME

MEETS OWNWER SPECIFIED NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS


WORK WITH FLEXIBILITY

Daniel W.Halpin (2006); Construction Management; Third Edition; John Wiley & Sons; USA. Andrew A. L. Tan (2004); Why Projects Fail? 1001 reasons; Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd.; Selangor, Malaysia.