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# INTRODUCTION TO MODELING AND SIMULATION

## Lesson 1: Introduction to Modeling and simulation

1.0 Modeling Concepts 1.1 What is a Model? 1.2 Why models are developed? 1.3 Types of Model 1.4 When to use Model? 1.5 Characteristics of a good model 1.6 Principles of Modeling

INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY

Enumerate instances/situations/scenarios where you use/apply models and why? Write a short essay (maybe 1-3 printed pages) answering the question Why do we use a model? simulation to study something?

## 5. Simulation Categories Live Constructive Virtual Analytic Engineering Testing

Quick Review
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Things which can be modeled Types of models Applications of simulation Types/Categories of Simulation Advantages of simulation Categories of simulation

## 1.1 What is a Model?

The word model is derived from Latin word modellus and its meaning is mould or pattern (physical model). A representation of an object, a system, or an idea in some form other than that of the entity itself. A model is a set of assumptions/approximations about how the system works A model is a simplified representation of a system at some particular point in time or space intended to promote understanding of the real system. The representation of an object in some form other than the form of the object itself, usually for the purpose of study or experimentation

## 1.3 Classification of Models

1. Physical: an actual representation 2. Schematic: a pictorial representation 3. Descriptive: a verbal description 4. Mathematical: components are described mathematically, in the form of equations 5. Heuristics: descriptive model based on rules; algorithmic; computer based (monte-carlo simulation)

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Physical (Prototypes)

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Analytical (Mathematical)

Wq W 1

W 1

2 Lq Wq

n P( N n) 1

L W

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Schematic

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## 1.4 When to use Model

To fly a simulator is safer and cheaper than the real airplane. For precisely this reason, models are used in industry, commerce and military: it is very costly, dangerous and often impossible to make experiments with real systems. Provided that models are adequate descriptions of reality (they are valid), experimenting with them can save money, suffering and even time.
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## 1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MODEL

Close approximation to the real system Simple to understand Goal directed Easy to control Complete on important issues Adaptive and easy to update

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## 1.5 PRINCIPLES OF MODELING

Modeling involves observing a system, noting the various components, then developing a representation of the system that will allow for further study of or experimentation on the system.

## 1. Do not build a complicated model when a simple one will suffice.

2. Beware of modeling the problem to fit the technique. 3. The deduction phase of modeling must be conducted rigorously (conclusions one draws from results). 4. Models should be validated prior to implementation. 5. A model should never be taken too literally.

## 1.5 PRINCIPLES OF MODELING cont.

6. A model should never be pressed to do, nor criticized for failing to do, that for which it was never intended. 7. Beware of overselling a model. 8. Some of the primary benefits of modeling are associated with the process of developing the model.

9. A model cannot be any better than the information going into it.
10. Models cannot replace decision makers.

Quick Review
1. Applications of simulation 2. Types/Categories of Simulation 3. Advantages of simulation

## MODELING AND SIMULATION QUOTES

ONE OF THE GREAT VALUES OF SIMULATION IS ITS ABILITY TO EFFECT A TIME AND SPACE COMPRESSION ON THE SYSTEM, ESSENTIALLY ALLOWING ONE TO PERCEIVE, IN A MATTER OF MINUTES, INTERACTIONS THAT WOULD NORMALLY UNFOLD OVER VERY LENTGHY TIME PERIODSGene Bellinger

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