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Dr. Attaullah Shah
mechanics. The practice of Engineering which applies the principles of soil mechanics to the design of engineering structures is called soil mechanics Engineering or Geo-technical Engineering.Soil Mechanics= Soil+Mechanics Branch of Science dealing with the structure. Engineering properties and reactions (behavior) of soils under loading and weathering. Which studies theoretically and practically soils for building of structures over it. and hydraulics applied to study the behavior of soils. . Knowledge of physics. Also called Geo-Technique ( Geo-Tech Engineering) Studies the mutual interaction of soils and structure.
To investigate the physical properties of soil and determine the coefficients to characterize these properties. .Objectives of Soil Mechanics To perform the Engineering soil surveys. water and temperature. To evaluate the soil test results and other applications as a construction material. To develop suitable soil testing devices and soil testing methods. To develop rational soil sampling devices and soil sampling methods. To understand various factors such as static and dynamic loads. To collect and classify soils and their physical properties on the basis of fundamental knowledge of soil mechanics.
Factors affecting permeability. degree of saturation. Permeability and capillarity: Definition. Laboratories and field determination of permeability Capillarity and effects. porosity. grain size distribution. Physical properties.Course Plan Teaching Week One Topics to be covered . trenches and pits. Soil Classification Hydrometric analysis. frost heave and its prevention. slabing of clay. Soil samples. void-ratio. and unit weight and their determination. probing test. Assignment#3 Assignment#2 Follow up Assignment#1. Distributed and undistributed samples. Darcy's law. Rotary drilling. soil exploration methods. Unified and AASHTO classification and description of their subgroups Soil Exploration: Purpose of soil exploration..Soil and its constituents: Weathering of rocks and types of soil. Mass Volume relationships.Introduction to the subject. bulking of sand.Auger boring. . Write a note on the importance of the subject of Soil Mechanics for Civil Engineering Two Three Four Five Six Seven Assignment#4 . 1st Quiz . Wash boring. Soil Classification: Importance of soil classification. specific gravity. sieve analysis. Atterberg limits. Theory of flow nets. e. water content.g.
Assignement#5 Ten Factors affecting compaction. Compaction standard.Eight Nine Mid Term Test Compaction: Definition. Field control and measurements of in-situ density. Moisture density relationship. Primary and secondary consolidation Primary and secondary consolidation Revision Assignement#6 Fourteen Fifteen Assignement#7 Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Assignment#8 Comprehensive Assignment . Oedometer test and graphical presentation of data. Compaction fundamentals. Coulomb's law. Effect of compaction on properties of soil 2nd Quiz Shear Strength: Concept. Eleven Twelve Thirteen Simple laboratory and field tests for determination of shear strength of soils. Coefficient of compressibility. Consolidation: Mechanics of consolidation. Co-efficient of volume change and degree of consolidation. assumptions and Validity. Compression index. Shear strength parameters. shear strength of cohesive and non-cohesive soils. Theory of one dimensional consolidation. 3rd Quiz Time factor.
as per following details: Assignments: 10 Quiz: 10 Mid Semester Exam: 20 Practical/Viva voce Exam: 20 Final End Semester Exam: 40 .Distribution of Marks: Sessional Marks: 60.
mechanical or chemical agents. From Geologist point of view. “ The superficial unconsolidated mantle of disintegrated and decomposed rock material”-The entire mantle or rock decay.Soil Formation Soil derives from Latin word “ Solum” having same meanings as our modern world. Soil is a complex of inorganic matters that may or may not contain organic decomposed organic residues and other substances. which blanket the earth’s crust. which is formed by the process of weathering ( Disintegration and decomposition) of rock and mineral. The weathering agents include physical. .
Soil is a mixture of Water. The top soil which supports vegetation is called “Top soil” and the undisturbed strata lying immediately below the natural top soil is termed as “ sub soil”. temperature. The solids are mixture of mineral matters with particle sizes differing in sizes. Air and Solids. wind and water erosion and transportation by the water erosion and transportation by water and glaciers. plant and animal life. shapes and structure and varying in chemical compositions. . The factors of weathering in the process of soil formation may be atmospheric such as pressure.
. Non cohesive or Cohesion-less soils: Sand and Gravels. Sands Silts Clay Fine grained soils and pets.Types of Soils: Six main types: Gravels. shale and silts. which possesses no plasticity and tend to lack cohesion specially when in dry state. They are further classified into two types: Cohesive soils: Clay.
How much counter weight must be placed as remedial measures against the lateral motion of soil . Does soil possesses properties ( friction and cohesion) which will assure satisfactory stability for foundation.Problems to be studied before execution of the projects How deep the soil exploration must be made? What is the safe and allowed bearing capacity? What is the load of structures to be applied at the soil? What is the intensity and stress distribution in a soil induced by various kinds of loading? How thick should be thickness of layer of good soil over a poor one in order to prevent the foundation from punching.
. The issues relating to water logging and salinity in soils etc. The suitability of soil for the construction of structures like dams. The depth of ground water and its variation at various depths. roads and buildings. The settlement of soils under applied loads and its rate and nature. Depth of frost penetration and subsequent depth of foundation and effect of freeze and thaw on pavement and structures.
or they may be new minerals that have resulted from the action of water. . wind. termed transported soils. carbon dioxide. and organic acids with minerals comprising the parent material. weathering may significantly affect the character of the soil to great depths. and chemical decomposition of the parent material. and water move these soils to form new deposits. The character of natural soil deposits usually is complex. while in temperate climates it produces a soil profile that primarily affects the character of surface soils. mainly rocks The products of weathering may have the same composition as the parent material. In humid and tropical climates. The products of weathering that remain in place are termed residual soils. In most cases gravity and erosion by ice. mechanical disintegration.Natural Soil Deposits Soils are the results of weathering.
specific gravity. and odor. Atterberg limits. size and shape of grains. odor when present. and void ratio). Descriptions of these soils should state the color. 200 sieve. gradation. water content. intact or fissured. and whether the soils are soft. . A description based on visual examination should include color. or stiff.Identification of Soils Soils are identified by visual examination and by means of their index properties (grain-size distribution. firm. and density and consistency characteristics. The visual examination should be accompanied by estimated or laboratory determined index properties. stratification. Coarse grained soils: soils have more than 50 percent by weight retained on the No. texture. 200 sieve and are described primarily on the basis of grain size and density Fine-grained soils have more than 50 percent by weight finer than the No.
Soil Index Properties: Grain-size distribution. .. The grain-size distribution of soils is determined by means of sieves and/or a hydrometer analysis. and the results are expressed in the form of a cumulative semilog plot of percentage finer versus grain diameter.
For routine analyses. as the plastic limit (PL). volume. The dry density of a soil is defined as the weight of solids contained in the unit volume of the soil and is usually expressed in pounds per cubic foot. The PL is the water content at which the soil will just begin to crumble when rolled into threads 1/8 inch in diameter. The upper limit of this range is known as the liquid limit (LL). expressed quantitatively by the unconfined compressive strength qu. Density. 70. the lower. The mass density of a soil material is its weight per unit Specific gravity. is the ratio of the unit weight of the solid constituents to the unit weight of water. Atterberg limits. The LL is the water content at which a soil will just begin to flow when slightly jarred in a prescribed manner. The specific gravity of the solid constituents of a soil Consistency. respectively. 65 and 2. the specific gravity of sands and clayey soils may be taken as 2. The consistency of an undisturbed cohesive soil may be . The Atterberg limits indicate the range of water content over which a cohesive soil behaves plastically.
their plasticity characteristics. and their grouping with respect to behavior.Soil Classification Unified Soil Classification: The Unified Soil Classification System. . based on identification of soils according to their grain-size distribution. should be used to classify soils in connection with foundation design.
Weight Volume relationships of soils .