Principles of Design

By: Pratibha Malik M.Tech 1st year

Principles of design are guidelines for the use of the elements of design. They are used for creating, discussing & evaluating garment designs on and off the individual.






equilibrium.Balance implies pose. Balance in garments is produced by structural parts and by added decoration. stability and security. . they should be grouped in such a way that there seems to be equal interest or weight on each side of an imaginary center. When important details or decorations are designed for a dress. a pleasing harmony is established. When the design elements are in balance.

b) Informal balance 1.a)Formal balance 1.c)Radial balance .1.

and formality. It provides a sense of dignity . conservatism. When each element on one side of the line has a counterpart on the other. It is also called symmetrical balance. . the result is called formal balance. restraint.

This is an arrangement of colours. shapes.Informal balance occurs when objects arranged on either side of a center are equal but not identical in all aspects. . lines and textures on one side balance a different arrangement on the other side.

Designs having informal balance are more difficult to construct. and are expensive .Informal balance is more a matter of visual impact rather than exact distribution of physical weight.

seams. Pleats. Because of intricate feature involved in this type of construction. it is found only in expensive clothing. This type of balance is found frequently in necklines. .Radial balance occurs when the major parts of the design radiate from a central point. gathers. darts. or motifs radiate from the focal point creating a sunburst effect.

It is the Point of initial eye contact on the design . EMPHASIS The location where the eye first settles on the garment is called emphasis. it is referred to as the focal point or the point of emphasis. .2. an outfit looks unplanned and monotonous too. therefore. Emphasis is what the designer wants the viewer to see. Without any such centre of interest.

Emphasis at any personality area may be achieved by colour and texture contrasts. hats. hairstyles. jewelry. . scarves. and makeup. necklines.

Two different colors or patterns in two different areas of a garment or design .


. giving the feeling of continuity throughout the design. but repetition is not very essential always. color. space.Rhythm is the feeling of organized movement. shape . value and pattern . Rhythm results from a regular or a gradual change. Rhythmic effect becomes stronger when a pattern is repeated. Rhythm is the pleasing arrangement of the design elements so the eye moves easily over the apparel. Rhythm is used most effectively with line.

Repetition Progression Sequencing Parallelism Broken rhythm Alteration The grid All-over pattern Transition Radiation .

Transition of Lines Progression of Shape Repetition of Flares Radiation of Shapes .

R E P E T I T I O N .




or out of proportion. Fashion that make the body look distorted. Proportion includes the relationship of height. Proportion applied to clothing design b. width.Proportion may be defined as the special or size relationship of all of the parts in a design to each other and to the whole. a. Proportion and body conformation . depth and surrounding space of each design. are sometimes popular fads.

IN-Proportion Out of proportion .

in a regular and orderly manner. harmony is pleasing visual unity.Unity is also called harmony in design or in other terms. . This is created when all parts of the design are related. It is the relationship among all parts within a whole.

the three aspects of design.function. .Harmony between shape and form is necessary for good design.  Unity is the coherence of whole. structure and decoration must be in accordance with each other. In order to achieve harmony in any garment.

 Dr. Directorate of Intermediate Education . Anitha.FASHION AND APPAREL DESIGNING pdf by State Institute of Vocational . Govt of Andhra Pradesh. FASHION by DESIGN book http://www. Dr. Sharada Devi . A. D.fashiondesignscope. Hyderabad.2005  Janice Greenberg Ellinwood.

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