EARLY DEVELOPMENT in MAMMALS

Overview of Development
Development is the successive process of systematic gene-directed changes throughout an organism’s life cycle -Can be divided into four subprocesses: -Growth (cell division) -Differentiation -Pattern formation -Morphogenesis

Principles of Embryonic Development  Fertilization results in embryonic development a zygote and triggers Plasma membrane Middle piece Neck Head Tail Mitochondrion Mitochondrion (spiral (spiral shape) shape) Nucleus Acrosome The shape of a human sperm cell is adapted to its function .

Cleavage starts Fertilization of ovum Oviduct Ovary Secondary oocyte Ovulation Blastocyst (implanted) Endometrium Uterus .In mammals. fertilization occurs in the oviduct where sperm encounters and the fuses with the oocyte. completes meiosis and two parenteral pronuclei fuse to form the diploid zygotic nucleus. as a result the oocyte nucleus which had been arrested metafase2.

The process of fertilization  Only one of these sperm will penetrate this human egg cell to initiate fertilization  Fertilization is the union of a sperm and an egg to form a diploid zygote  1 The sperm approaches the egg SPERM 2 The sperm’s acrosomal enzymes digest the egg’s jelly 3 Proteins on the coat sperm head bind to egg receptors 4 The plasma membranes of sperm and egg fuse Sperm head Nucleus Acrosome Acrosomal Plasma membrane enzymes Receptor protein molecules Plasma membrane Vitelline layer Cytoplasm Sperm nucleus Egg nucleus 5 The sperm nucleus enters the egg cytoplasm 6 A fertilization envelope forms Jelly coat EGG CELL 7 The nuclei of sperm and egg fuse Zygote nucleus .

Cell Division  Cleavage   is the first major phase of embryonic development It is the rapid succession of cell divisions It creates a multicellular embryo from the zygote It partitions the multicellular embryo into developmental regions  .

Cell Division After fertilization. the diploid zygote undergoes a period of rapid mitotic divisions is called cleavage -Controlled by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) During cleavage. the zygote is divided into smaller & smaller cells called blastomeres .

-Tissue-specific: can give rise to only one tissue -Pluripotent: can give rise to multiple different cell types (Blastocyst-inner cell mass) -Totipotent: can give rise to any cell type (Morula stage ) .Cell Division Blastomeres are nondifferentiated and can give rise to any tissue. Stem cells are set aside and will continue to divide while remaining undifferentiated.

Cleave in mammals continues for 5-6 days producing a ball of cells. the blastocyst -Consists of: -Outer layer= Forms the placenta (Trophoblast cell that secretes enzymes to enable the blastocyst to implant in the uterine wall) ENDOMETRIUM Inner cell mass Cavity Trophoblast .

-Inner cell mass = Forms the embryo -Source of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) The ICM is marked here with the antibody stain against Oct4 ICM Trophoblast cell .

The inner cell mass of the blastocyst develops into the human embryo. Embryonic stem-cell culture Inner cell mass Egg Sperm Blastocyst Embryo Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are isolated from the inner cell mass . cell cleavage produces a blastocyst.Cell Division Once sperm and egg cell have joined.

they are not determined .Cell Differentiation A human body contains more than 210 major types of differentiated cells Cell determination commits a cell to a particular developmental pathway -Can only be “seen” by experiment -Cells are moved to a different location in the embryo -If they develop according to their new position.

Cell Differentiation Cells initiate developmental changes by using transcriptional factors to change patterns of gene expression Cells become committed to follow a particular developmental pathway in one of two ways: 1) via differential inheritance of cytoplasmic determinants 2) via cell-cell interactions .

Gastrulation produces a threelayered embryo  Gastrulation is the second major phase of embryonic development and produces a three-layered embryo    It adds more cells to the embryo It sorts all cells into three distinct cell layers The embryo is transformed from the blastula into the gastrula .

which partly fills the space between the ectoderm and endoderm Amnion Chorion  Yolk sac . an embryonic digestive Mesoderm tract cells Mesoderm. the outer cavity layer Endoderm.The three layers produced in gastrulation   Amniotic Ectoderm.

Organs start to form after gastrulation  Embryonic tissue layers begin to differentiate into specific tissues and organ systems after gastrulation. .

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the four embryonic membranes develop into Amniotic cavity  Amnion Amnion  Chorion Mesoderm Chorion  Yolk sac cells  Allantois Yolk sac .Meanwhile.

Secrete hormones into the mother to help retain the fetus • 3. Repress the mother’s immune response to prevent rejection of the fetus •The placenta’s chorionic villi absorb food and oxygen from the mother’s blood Allantois Yolk sac Chorionic villi . The embryo floats in the fluid-filled amniotic cavity. while the chorion and embryonic mesoderm form the embryo’s part of the placenta Placenta Mother’s blood vessels Amniotic cavity Amnion Embryo Chorion Functions of the chorion: • 1. Provide nutrients and O2 to the fetus • 2.

and mesoderm   Adjacent cells and cell layers use chemical signals to influence differentiation Chemical signals turn on a set of genes whose expression makes the receiving cells differentiate into a specific tissue .Embryonic induction initiates organ formation  Induction is the mechanism by which one group of cells influences the development of tissues and organs from ectoderm. endoderm.

Pattern formation organizes the animal body  Pattern formation is the emergence of a body form with structures in their correct relative positions  It involves the response of genes to spatial variations of chemicals in the embryo .

cell shape. and programmed cell death give form to the developing animal Ectoderm  Tissues and organs take shape in a developing embryo as a result of    cell division cell shape changes cell migration . cell migration.Changes in cell division.

 programmed cell death (apoptosis) Cell suicide Dead cell engulfed and digested by adjacent cell .

two unequal daughter cells will result .Morphogenesis Cell division -The orientation of the mitotic spindle determines the plane of cell division in eukaryotic cells -If spindle is centrally located. two equal-sized daughter cells will result -If spindle is off to one side.

Morphogenesis Cell shape and size -In animals. cell differentiation is accomplished by profound changes in cell size and shape -Nerve cells develop long processes called axons -Skeletal muscles cells are large and multinucleated .

inhibitor and apoptotic protease .Morphogenesis Cell death -Necrosis is accidental cell death -Apoptosis is programmed cell death -Is required for normal development in all animals -“Death program” pathway consists of: -Activator.

Inc. Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Mammalian Cell Inhibitor: CED-9 Inhibitor Bcl-2 Activator: CED-4 Apaf1 Apoptotic Protease: CED-3 Caspase-8 or -9 Inhibition Activation Apoptosis Apoptosis a. . Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. b.

Morphogenesis Cell migration -Cell movement involves both adhesion and loss of adhesion between cells and substrate -Cell-to-cell interactions are often mediated through cadherins -Cell-to-substrate interactions often involve complexes between integrins and the extracellular matrix (ECM) .

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