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Biology 11

Interesting Facts
• A heart beats about 100,000 times a day and 35 million times a year. • Every minute, the heart pumps our entire supply of blood -- about five litres -- through the body. • In one day, the heart pumps nearly 7200 litres of blood. In a 70-year lifetime, it pumps about 185 million gallons. • An aorta is almost the diameter of a garden hose, but it takes ten capillaries to equal the diameter of a strand of human hair. • There are 100,000 km of blood vessels in each human! • In ancient times, the heart was given special importance. The Chinese considered that happiness originated in the heart, and the Egyptians considered the heart to be the source of intelligence and emotion. • Heart cells can beat on their own without intervention from the brain.

• Small unicellular organisms do not need a circulatory system. Why do larger organisms need one? • HINT: Think surface : volume ratio.

The Importance of Circulation
• Unicellular organisms do not need any specialized system to transport nutrients, wastes and gases. • The cells of unicellular and simple multicellular organisms are never far away from the organism‟s surroundings (from where nutrients, gases, etc. come from) • The cells of larger organisms are too far away for such substances to diffuse to/from all cells. Therefore, a specialized transport system is required.

Transport in Animals: Open vs. Closed Systems
• Most animals have evolved specialized systems to transport gases, nutrients and metabolic wastes. These systems in animals have two essential parts: 1. circulatory fluid (blood) 2. a pump (heart or other muscular structure) • Some animals have blood vessels (optional)
– if vessels are present…  closed transport system. Ex: Human – if absent …………  an open transport system ex. Grasshopper

Circulatory System Overview

Functions Include • Transport of life sustaining nutrients, O2, hormones • Transport of wastes such as CO2 and urea. • Protection from disease (Leukocytes) • Clotting • Maintaining constant body temperature. • Helps with regulation of fluid levels in body. • General movement of blood through blood vessels: heart  arteries  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  heart


What are the components of Blood?
Blood contains 4 components: • 55 % Plasma • 45% Erythrocytes • <1%Leukocytes • <1% Platelets

Ratios are maintained! Solutes ↑, ↑ H2O absorbed Solutes ↓ , H2O excreted

• Plasma is the liquid portion of blood. It is composed of approximately 90% fluid along with blood proteins, glucose, vitamins, minerals, dissolved gases, and waste products of cell metabolism.

What is Plasma and what does it contain?

There are 3 protein groups in the Plasma
• The albumins work together with inorganic minerals to maintain body fluid levels by drawing water via osmosis back into the capillaries • The globulins assist in protecting the body from foreign invaders • The fibrinogens play an important role in blood clotting.

Components of Blood
• Blood cells come from stem cells in bone marrow.

What is the role of Erythrocytes?
• Erythrocytes are red blood cells (RBC) whose job is to carry oxygen. • Haemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that significantly increases the ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen. • Hemoglobin comes in 2 forms, Oxyhemoglobin when it is bound to oxygen (bright red), Carbinohemoglobin when it is bound to CO2 (dark red) • Red blood cells are biconcave in shape which increases their surface area for gas exchange by 20 to 30%.
**Your Hematocrit level (when getting blood-work) is the percentage of Erythrocytes in your blood

**Anemia is a condition when you don‟t have enough Erythrocytes / Hemoglobin**

Why would people with low Iron levels in their diet experience symptoms such as fatigue and muscle weakness?
Hemoglobin composed of mostly iron .:. Low Iron means reduced oxygen transport capacity!

What are Leukocytes?
• Leukocytes are white blood cells (WBC), whose primary function is to protect against infection • There are different types that perform different functions; for example Macrophages perform Phagocytosis on foreign invaders to eliminate them from the body • Humans contain significantly less leukocytes than erythrocytes • A ratio of 700 RBC‟s to 1 WBC

What are Platelets?
• Platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting. They break open when they come in contact with the sharp edge of a broken blood vessel and release chemicals which begin the blood clotting process

The Human Circulatory System

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Components of The Human Circulatory System The Heart
– two atria (right and left) (singular = atrium) – two ventricles (right and left) – Has valves to prevent backflow Blood Vessels – Arteries – Arterioles – Capillaries – Veins – Venules

The heart‟s chambers are named as if you are facing someone! Right Atrium / Ventricle = Left Side of Page Left Atrium / Ventricle = Right Side of Page

Circulatory Routes of the Human Cardiovascular System
• The CV system is a closed, one-way system (blood only flows in one direction) • However blood flows in two distinct circuits Pulmonary Circuit • path of blood: • right side the heart  lungs (blood picks up O2 and gets rid of CO2)  left side of heart.

Systemic Circuit • path of blood: • left side of the heart  tissues in the body to deliver O2, nutrients, get pick up wastes  right side of heart.

TWO kinds: Atrio-ventricular and Semilunar…

Atrio-Ventricular (AV) Valves
• each is located between an atrium and a ventricle • when the ventricles contract, these valves prevent blood from flowing from the ventricles back into the atria Tricuspid valve – has three „cusps‟ or flaps that open and close. – between right atrium and right ventricle Bicuspid (mitral) valve – has two „cusps‟ or flaps that open and close. – (AKA mitral valve) – between left atrium and left ventricle

...Valves of the Heart
Semilunar Valves • located in the two major arteries as they leave the heart • prevent blood flow back into the ventricles • each have a crescent or half-moon (semilunar) shape
Pulmonary Valve – leads to the pulmonary artery – between right ventricle and pulmonary artery Aortic Valve – leads to the aorta – between left ventricle and aorta • Cool fact: Ever listen to your heart beat? It makes a “lub-dub” sound. As your ventricles contract, your AV valves close preventing backflow into atria  “lub”. When your ventricles relax, the semilunar valves close preventing backflow  “dub” • animation: valves in action

Heart Valve Pics

Tricuspid Valve


Bicuspid [Mitral] Valve


Aortic Valve


Pulmonary Valve


Flow of Blood Through the Heart

Components of The Human Circulatory System Blood Vessels Arteries:
– – – – take blood from heart. not always rich in O2. size: 25 mm (aorta) to 0.5 mm. branch into smaller arteries called arterioles (< 0.5 mm). arterioles contain „smooth‟ muscle that regulates blood pressure. – „elastic‟ in nature. they stretch and „bulge‟ when heart pumps blood through  feel your pulse!

Blood Vessels
Veins: – take blood to heart – not always low in O2 – branch into smaller veins called venules – the lumens (openings) are larger than that of arteries but walls are thinner. – depend on contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle to move blood. – contain valves  prevent backflow of blood.

Look at the veins on this guy!

Valves in Veins Prevent Backflow

When the valves of the veins are leaky… varicose veins!

Blood Vessels
Capillaries: – tiny blood vessels. about 0.008 mm in diameter, just wide enough for one red blood cell to pass through. – one cell thick; makes exchange of materials between blood and body cells easy. – connect arterioles and venuoles – the total length of all the capillaries in your body is 1000‟s of kilometres. Total surface area is nearly 6000 m2. Why? – Penetrate almost every tissue in the body.

Comparison of Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels of a Fetal Pig

CV Word Scramble
Several structures of the circulatory system are listed below. Unscramble the terms to describe the flow of blood through the body. Start with "blood from the body". Present your answer as a flow chart-style graphic organizer.

• • • • • • • • • •

Blood from the body bicuspid valve Superior vena cava carbon dioxide right ventricle Inferior vena cava pulmonary valve Left ventricle Oxygen Right atrium

• • • • • • • • • •

oxygen body Left atrium Pulmonary artery Tricuspid valve Pulmonary veins lungs Aortic valve carbon dioxide Aorta

Blood from the 1 Body

Superior & Inferior 2 Vena Cava

Right3 Atrium

Tricuspid 4 Valve

Lungs 8

Pulmonary Artery


6 Valve Pulmonary

5 Right Ventricle

Dump Carbon 9 Dioxide

Pick up Oxygen 10

Pulmonary 11 Veins

Left Atrium 12



15 Aortic Valve

Left Ventricle


Bicuspid 13 Valve



Pick up Carbon Dioxide 18

Dump Oxygen


Back to Heart


Locating Heart Sounds with a Stethoscope

Conduction System of the Heart
• cardiac muscle can contract without external nerve stimulation (i.e. messages from the brain). The heart can continue to beat for a short time once removed from the body • the heart‟s tempo is set by the sinoatrial node (SA node); a bundle of specialized nerves. It is often referred to as the pacemaker. Its tempo is set to about 70 bpm (beats per minute). • the autonomic (automatic) nervous system regulates heart rate but does not initiate contraction (the SA node does). It speeds up/slows down the SA node as needed.

Conduction System of the Heart
Electrical Impulse in Heart: • SA node initiates cardiac cycle. It sends out an electrical impulse. • electrical impulse spreads over both atria causing them to contract At the same time, it sends an impulse to the AV node impulse is slowly spread through AV node and then to the Bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle) impulse spreads through both sides of the septum impulse goes to Purkinje Fibres which stimulate contraction of ventricles!

ECG (Electrocardiogram)
• An ECG can be used to measure the electrical fields produced within the heart. Doctors can analyze such a ECG to diagnose heart problems.

P-wave Atrial contraction T-wave Ventricles recover

QRS-wave Ventricular contraction

Regulation of Heart Rate Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
• Although the heart can beat without nervous intervention, heart rate must be regulated by the nervous system as conditions change • The ANS is comprised of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
ANS Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system

Stimulated by brain in times of stress (fight or flight). It makes heart beat faster. Blood flow increases. •

Stimulated by brain in times of relaxation. It makes heart beat slower. Blood flow decreases.

Tachycardia : When Heart Rate > 100 bpm. This can be caused by exercise or drugs such as caffeine or nicotine.

Regulation of Blood Flow
• The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) maintains homeostasis automatically. • Pre-Capillary sphincter muscles encircle arterioles before capillary beds. The ANS can regulate blood flow to tissues by sending a nerve impulse to these muscles causing them to contract or relax. • Contraction of Pre-Capillary sphincter muscles  vasoconstriction (less blood flow) • Relaxation of Pre-Capillary sphincter muscles  vasodialation (more blood flow)

• Blood pressure is the measure of force against the blood vessel walls • Measured in the brachial artery (in upper arm). It is measured in the units “mmHg” (millimetres of mercury) • Blood pressure is measured by a device called a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) • Blood pressure has two readings; systole and diastole. • • Systole: blood pressure when the ventricles are contracting. Diastole: blood pressure when the ventricles are relaxed. Blood pressure varies with age, health, exercise. A typical resting BP is 120/80 (read as “120 over 80”)

What is Blood Pressure?

Regulation of Blood Pressure
• It is important to regulate blood pressure. Low blood pressure reduces blood flow. High blood pressure weakens arteries which may rupture. Consistently high blood pressure is called hypertension. • BP is regulated by renal system (kidneys), nervous system, and by hormones. Together, physiological changes are made to raise or lower blood pressure. • Special sensors called baroreceptors detect pressure change in the aorta and carotid artery (in neck). The baroreceptors send messages to medulla oblongata to increase/decrease.

regulation of blood pressure

Regulation of Blood Pressure

Regulation of Blood Pressure
If blood pressure is LOW: • vasoconstriction: smooth muscle around the blood vessels contracts, narrowing the lumen of the vessels ...BP  • blood volume: blood volume … BP • cardiac output: Heart Rate (beats/min) and Stroke Volume (mL per beat) increase… BP  If blood pressure is HIGH: • vasodilation: smooth muscle around the blood vessels relaxes. the blood vessel opens up …BP . • blood volume: blood volume … BP • cardiac output: Heart Rate and Stoke Volume … BP

measuring blood pressure

Regulation of Blood Pressure
Cool facts: • Some people think an alcoholic drink will warm you up on a cold day. It actually cools you down! Alcohol causes vasodilation of blood vessels in skin. This increases blood flow to skin…heat is lost! • Alcohol makes some people congested! Blood vessels in nose dilate  nasal passages close off.

• Why does your face turn red and feel warm when you blush?