This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Module 1
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
12
Introduction
Welcome!
• Welcome to the Dynamics Training Course!
• This training course covers the ANSYS procedures required to
perform dynamic analyses.
• It is intended for novice and experienced users interested in
solving dynamic problems using ANSYS.
• Several other advanced training courses are available on specific
topics. See the training course schedule on the ANSYS
homepage: www.ansys.com under “Training Services”.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
13
Introduction
Course Objectives
By the end of this course, you will be able to use ANSYS to:
• Preprocess, solve, and postprocess a modal, harmonic, transient, and
spectrum analysis.
• Use a Restart Analysis to either add time points to an existing load
history or recover from an unconverged solution.
• Use the Mode Superposition method to reduce the solution time of
either a transient or harmonic analysis.
• Use ANSYS’s advanced modal analysis capabilities. These include
prestressed modal, cyclic symmetry, and large deflection analyses.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
14
Introduction
Course Material
• The Training Manual you have is an exact copy of the slides.
• Workshop descriptions and instructions are included in the
Workshop Supplement.
• Copies of the workshop files are available (upon request) from the
instructor.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
15
Module 1
Introduction to Dynamics
A. Define dynamic analysis and its purpose.
B. Discuss different types of dynamic analysis.
C. Cover some basic concepts and terminology.
D. Introduce the Variable Viewer in the TimeHistory Postprocessor.
E. Do a sample dynamic analysis exercise.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
16
Dynamics
A. Definition & Purpose
What is dynamic analysis?
• A technique used to determine the dynamic behavior of a
structure or component, where the structure’s inertia (mass
effects) and damping play an important role.
• “Dynamic behavior” may be one or more of the following:
– Vibration characteristics  how the structure vibrates and at what
frequencies.
– Effect of time varying loads (on the structure’s displacements and
stresses, for example).
– Effect of periodic (a.k.a. oscillating or random) loads.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
17
Dynamics
… Definition & Purpose
• A static analysis might ensure that
the design will withstand steady
state loading conditions, but it
may not be sufficient, especially if
the load varies with time.
• The famous Tacoma Narrows
bridge (Galloping Gertie) collapsed
under steady wind loads during a
42mph wind storm on November
7, 1940, just four months after
construction.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
18
Dynamics
… Definition & Purpose
• A dynamic analysis usually takes into account one or more of the
following:
– Vibrations  due to rotating machinery, for example.
– Impact  car crash, hammer blow.
– Alternating forces  crank shafts, other rotating machinery.
– Seismic loads  earthquake, blast.
– Random vibrations  rocket launch, road transport.
• Each situation is handled by a specific type of dynamic analysis.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
19
Dynamics
B. Types of Dynamic Analysis
Consider the following examples:
– An automobile tailpipe assembly could shake apart if its natural
frequency matched that of the engine. How can you avoid this?
– A turbine blade under stress (centrifugal forces) shows different
dynamic behavior. How can you account for it?
Answer  do a modal analysis to determine a structure’s vibration
characteristics.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
110
Dynamics
… Types of Dynamic Analysis
– An automobile fender should be able to withstand lowspeed impact,
but deform under higherspeed impact.
– A tennis racket frame should be designed to resist the impact of a
tennis ball and yet flex somewhat.
Solution  do a transient dynamic analysis to calculate a structure’s
response to time varying loads.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
111
Dynamics
… Types of Dynamic Analysis
– Rotating machines exert steady,
alternating forces on bearings and
support structures. These forces
cause different deflections and
stresses depending on the speed of
rotation.
Solution  do a harmonic analysis to
determine a structure’s response to
steady, harmonic loads.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
112
– Building frames and bridge structures in an
earthquake prone region should be designed to
withstand earthquakes.
Solution  do a spectrum analysis to determine a
structure’s response to seismic loading.
Courtesy: U.S. Geological Survey
Dynamics
… Types of Dynamic Analysis
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
113
– Spacecraft and aircraft components must withstand random loading
of varying frequencies for a sustained time period.
Solution  do a random vibration analysis to determine how a
component responds to random vibrations.
Courtesy:
NASA
Dynamics
… Types of Dynamic Analysis
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
114
Dynamics
C. Basic Concepts and Terminology
Topics discussed:
• General equation of motion
• Solution methods
• Modeling considerations
• Mass matrix
• Damping
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
115
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
Equation of Motion
• The general equation of motion is as follows.
 { }  { }  { } ( ) { } t F u K u C u M = + +
• Different analysis types solve different forms of this equation.
– Modal analysis: F(t) is set to zero, and [C] is usually ignored.
– Harmonic analysis: F(t) and u(t) are both assumed to be harmonic in
nature, i.e, Xsin(et), where X is the amplitude and e is the frequency
in radians/sec.
– Transient dynamic analysis: The above form is maintained.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
116
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
Solution Methods
How do we solve the general equation of motion?
• Two main techniques:
– Mode superposition
– Direct integration
Mode superposition
• The frequency modes of the structure are predicted, multiplied by
generalized coordinates, and then summed to calculate the
displacement solution.
• Can be used for transient and harmonic analyses.
• Covered in Module 6.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
117
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Solution Methods
Direct integration
• Equation of motion is solved directly, without the use of
generalized coordinates.
• For harmonic analyses, since both loads and response are
assumed to be harmonic, the equation is written and solved as a
function of forcing frequency instead of time.
• For transient analyses, the equation remains a function of time
and can be solved using either an explicit or implicit method.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
118
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Solution Methods
Explicit Method
• No matrix inversion
• Can handle nonlinearities easily
(no convergence issues)
• Integration time step At must be
small (1e6 second is typical)
• Useful for short duration transients
such as wave propagation, shock
loading, and highly nonlinear
problems such as metal forming.
• ANSYSLS/DYNA uses this method.
Not covered in this seminar.
Implicit Method
• Matrix inversion is required
• Nonlinearities require equilibrium
iterations (convergence problems)
• Integration time step At can be large
but may be restricted by
convergence issues
• Efficient for most problems except
where At needs to be very small.
• This is the topic covered in this
seminar
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
119
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
Modeling Considerations
Geometry and Mesh:
• Generally same considerations as a static analysis.
• Include as many details as necessary to sufficiently represent the
model mass distribution.
• A fine mesh will be needed in areas where stress results are of
interest. If you are only interested in displacement results, a
coarse mesh may be sufficient.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
120
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Modeling Considerations
Material properties:
• Both Young’s modulus and density are required.
• Remember to use consistent units.
• For density, specify mass density instead of weight density when using
British units:
– [Mass density] = [weight density]/[g] = [lbf/in
3
] / [in/sec
2
] = [lbfsec
2
/in
4
]
– Density of steel = 0.283/386 = 7.3 x 104 lbfsec
2
/in
4
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
121
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Modeling Considerations
Nonlinearities (large deflections, contact, plasticity, etc.):
• Allowed only in a full transient dynamic analysis.
• Ignored in all other dynamic analysis types  modal, harmonic,
spectrum, and reduced or mode superposition transient. That is,
the initial state of the nonlinearity will be maintained throughout
the solution.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
122
[M] Consistent
x x 0 x x 0
x x 0 x x 0
0 0 x 0 0 x
x x 0 x x 0
x x 0 x x 0
0 0 x 0 0 x
ROTZ
UY
UX
ROTZ
UY
UX
2
2
2
1
1
1
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
[M] Lumped
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
x
x
x
x
x
x
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
Mass Matrix
• Mass matrix [M] is required for a dynamic analysis and is
calculated for each element from its density.
• Two types of [M]: consistent and lumped. Shown below for
BEAM3, the 2D beam element.
1 2
BEAM3 BEAM3
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
123
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Mass Matrix
Consistent mass matrix
• Calculated from element shape functions.
• Default for most elements.
• Some elements have a special form called the reduced mass
matrix, which has rotational terms zeroed out.
Lumped mass matrix
• Mass is divided among the element’s nodes. Offdiagonal terms
are zero.
• Activated as an analysis option (LUMPM command).
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
124
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Mass Matrix
Which mass matrix should you use?
• Consistent mass matrix (default setting) for most applications.
• Reduced mass matrix (if available) or lumped [M] for structures
that are small in one dimension compared to the other two
dimensions, e.g, slender beams or very thin shells.
• Lumped mass matrix for wave propagation problems.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
125
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
Damping
What is damping?
• The energy dissipation mechanism that causes
vibrations to diminish over time and eventually
stop.
• Amount of damping mainly depends on the
material, velocity of motion, and frequency of
vibration.
• Can be classified as:
– Viscous damping
– Hysteresis or solid damping
– Coulomb or dryfriction damping
Dampening of
a Response
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
126
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Viscous damping
• Occurs when a body moves through a fluid.
• Should be considered in a dynamic analysis since the damping
force is proportional to velocity.
– The proportionality constant c is called the damping constant.
• Usually quantified as damping ratio ç (ratio of damping constant c
to critical damping constant c
c
*).
• Critical damping is defined as the threshold between oscillatory
and nonoscillatory behavior, where damping ratio = 1.0.
*For a singleDOF spring mass system of mass m and frequency e, c
c
= 2me.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
127
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Hysteresis or solid damping
• Inherently present in a material.
• Should be considered in a dynamic analysis.
• Not well understood and therefore difficult to quantify.
Coulomb or dryfriction damping
• Occurs when a body slides on a dry surface.
• Damping force is proportional to the force normal to the surface.
– Proportionality constant µ is the coefficient of friction.
• Generally not considered in a dynamic analysis.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
128
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
ANSYS allows all three forms of damping.
• Viscous damping can be included by specifying the damping ratio
ç, Rayleigh damping constant o (discussed later), or by defining
elements with damping matrices.
• Hysteresis or solid damping can be included by specifying
another Rayleigh damping constant,  (discussed later).
• Coulomb damping can be included by defining contact surface
elements and gap elements with friction capability (not discussed
in this seminar; see the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for
information).
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
129
• In ANSYS damping is defined as
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
] C [ C ] K [ ] K )[ ( ] M [ ] C [
NEL
1 k
k
NMAT
1 j
j j c ç
= =
+ +  +  +  + o =
¿ ¿
[C]
o
M


c
K

j
[C
k
]
C
ç

structure damping matrix
constant mass matrix multiplier (ALPHAD)
structure mass matrix
constant stiffness matrix multiplier (BETAD)
variable stiffness matrix multiplier (DMPRAT)
structure stiffness matrix
constant stiffness matrix multiplier for material j (MP,DAMP)
element damping matrix (element real constants)
frequencydependent damping matrix (DMPRAT and MP,DAMP)
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
130
• Damping is specified in various forms:
– Viscous damping factor or damping ratio ç
– Quality factor or simply Q
– Loss factor or Structural damping factor q
– Log decrement A
– Spectral damping factor D
• Most of these are related to DAMPING RATIO ç used in ANSYS
• Conversion factors are shown next
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
131
• Conversion between various damping specifications:
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Measure
Damping
ratio
Loss Factor
Log
Decrement
Quality
Factor
Spectral
Damping
Amplification
Factor
Damping
Ratio ç q/2 A/2t 1/(2Q) D/(4tU) 1/2A
Loss Factor
2ç q A/t 1/Q D/(2tU) 1/A
Log
Decrement 2tç tq A t/Q D/(2U) t/A
Quality
Factor 1/(2ç) 1/q t/A Q 2tU/D A
Spectral
Damping 4tUç 2tUq 2UA 2tU/Q D 2tU/A
Amplification
Factor 1/(2ç) 1/q t/A Q 2tU/D A
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
132
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Alpha Damping
• Also known as mass damping.
• Specified only if viscous damping is
dominant, such as in underwater
applications, shock absorbers, or
objects facing wind resistance.
• If beta damping is ignored, o can be
calculated from a known value of ç
(damping ratio) and a known
frequency e:
o = 2çe
• Only one value of alpha is allowed, so
pick the most dominant response
frequency to calculate o.
• Input using the ALPHAD command.
Frequency
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
R
a
t
i
o
o=3
1
2
0.5
Effect of Alpha Damping on Damping
Ratio (Beta Damping Ignored)
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
133
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Beta Damping
• Also known as structural or stiffness
damping.
• Inherent property of most materials.
• Specified per material or as a single,
global value.
• If alpha damping is ignored,  can be
calculated from a known value of ç
(damping ratio) and a known frequency
e:
 = 2ç/e
• Pick the most dominant response
frequency to calculate .
• Input using MP,DAMP or BETAD
command.
Frequency
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
R
a
t
i
o
=0.004
0.003
0.001
0.002
Effect of Beta Damping on Damping
Ratio (Alpha Damping Ignored)
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
134
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
Rayleigh damping constants o and 
• Used as multipliers of [M] and [K] to calculate [C]:
[C] = o[M] + [K]
o/2e
+ e/2 = ç
where e is the frequency, and ç is the damping ratio.
• Needed in situations where damping ratio ç cannot be specified.
• Alpha is the viscous damping component, and Beta is the
hysteresis (a.k.a. solid or stiffness) damping component.
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
135
Dynamics  Basic Concepts & Terminology
… Damping
To specify both o and  damping:
• Use the relation
o/2e
+ e/2 = ç
• Since there are two unknowns,
assume that the sum of alpha and
beta damping gives a constant
damping ratio ç over the frequency
range e
1
to e
2
. This gives two
simultaneous equations from which
you can solve for o and .
ç = o/2e
1
+ e
1
/2
ç = o/2e
2
+ e
2
/2
Frequency
D
a
m
p
i
n
g
R
a
t
i
o
o+

o
e
1
e
2
How to Approximate Rayleigh
Damping Constants
Rayleigh Equation: the sum
of the o and  terms is nearly
constant over the range of
frequencies
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
136
Dynamics  PostProcessing
D. Variable Viewer
• The Variable Viewer is a
specialized tool allowing one to
postprocess results with respect
to time or frequency.
• The Variable Viewer can be
started by:
– Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro >
Variable Viewer
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
137
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
13
14
17
Add variable button 1
Delete variable button 2
Graph variable button 3
List variable button 4
Properties button 5
Import data button 6
Export data button 7
Export data type 8
Real/Imaginary Components
Variable list
Variable name input area
11
Expression input area
12
Defined APDL variables
13
Defined Post26 variables
14
15
Calculator
Dynamics  PostProcessing
…Variable Viewer
15 16
9
11
10
9 Clear TimeHistory Data
10 Refresh TimeHistory Data
12
16
17
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
138
100kg
25kg
k = 36kN/m
F
¹
´
¦
<
>
=
0 , 0
0 , 4000
t
t N
F
k = 36kN/m
x
y
Dynamics  PostProcessing
…Variable Viewer
D
Y
N
A
M
I
C
S
7
.
0
Training Manual
March 14, 2003
Inventory #001809
139
Dynamics
E. Introductory Workshop
• In this workshop, you will run a
sample dynamic analysis of the
“Galloping Gertie” (Tacoma
Narrows bridge).
• Follow the instructions in your
Dynamics Workshop supplement
(Introductory Dynamics 
Galloping Gertie, Page W5 ).
• The idea is to introduce you to
the steps involved in a typical
dynamic analysis. Details of
what each step means will be
covered in the rest of this
seminar.
Failure of Tacoma Narrows Bridge