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Refference

Phosphorylation

Factor Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Phosphorylation
Definition
Phosphorylation is the process of ATP synthesis.

Kinds of Phosphorylation
Photophosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Substrate-level Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation
Synthesis of ATP in the photochemical reaction of
photosynthesis when electrons are transported

from H2O to NADP+ via several electron carriers.

Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation
Synthesis of ATP during oxidation of NADH/FADH2 in the presence of oxygen The process is too complicated as it involves a series of redox systems (electron carriers) through which electrons are transferred from NADH to oxygen.

Phosphorylation

Phosphorylation
Synthesis of ATP without involving electron transport In this case an energy rich phosphoryl group is shifted from a metabolite (substrate) to ADP to form ATP.

Phosphorylation

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Temperature

Water Oxygen

Other
Source : Stern, Kingsley Rowland.2000.Introduction Plant Biology.America ; Mc Graw-Hill Education

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

With increase in temperature from 5oC to 30oC, the rate of respiration rises exponentially with Q10value approximately equal to two.

Pattern

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Q10 is the measure the number of times the rate increases when the temperature is increased by 10oC. Generally, when temperature is increased from 15oC to 25oC, the rate of respiration doubles.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

When water content becomes this low , respiration does not cease completely, but it continues at a drastically reduced rate, resulting in only very tiny amounts of heat being released and of carbon dioxide being given off.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

The oxygen content is reduced to as little as 1% to 3% by pumping in nitrogen gas, while maintaining low temperatures and humidity. Oxygen concentration is not reduced below 1% because that can result in an undesirable increase in fermentation.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration


Availability of respiratory fuels Hydration Kind of Plant Material

Wounding/ Injury

CO2 Concentration

Light

Age

Inhibitors/ Respiratory Poisons


Source : Rawat,M.S.2011.journal Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. New Delhi ; Hansraj College

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Supply of monosaccharides such as glucose,


increases rate of respiration.

Starvation certainly lowers respiration and even


leads to protoplasmic respiration, where proteins

and amino acids are used in respiration.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Rate of respiration decreases when there is water stress. In dry seeds, the rate of respiration is negligible.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Rate of respiration is high in growing systems but


very low in storage organs and dormant systems. Rate of respiration is high in shoot apices, flowers, leaves and germinating seeds. In tubers, corms and tuberous roots rate of respiration is low due to poor penetration of oxygen.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Although, respiration is not affected by light, in green plants the rate of the process is more in light than in darkness. The light intensity at which the rate of photosynthesis is just equal to the rate of respiration is called light compensation point. In C3 plants, the rate of overall respiration in light may be affected by photorespiration

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Normally CO2 does not affect respiration but a relatively


higher level of CO2 depresses respiration. At higher concentration of CO2 stomata close in plants even in the presence of light. This principle of retardation of respiration by increasing

CO2 level has been utilized for prolonged storage of fruits.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Wounding of plant parts accelerates respiration.


The mechanism of stimulation of respiration by wounding is not well understood. This is attributed to hormonal production during injury and healing process that follows. The plant hormone, indole acetic acid, is known to

accelerate rate of respiration.

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Normally rate of respiration decreases


tremendously.

with age.

However, in ripening fruits rate of respiration increases This high rate of respiration when it is at its peak is called respiratory climacteric.

Graphic

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration

There are numerous substances, which inhibit respiration. 1. Enzyme inhibitors such as heavy metals (Ag, Hg and Pb) and aceto amide inhibit respiration. Cyanide, azides, carbon-monoxide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, rotenone, fluoro acetate 2. Several fungal toxins and antibiotics also inhibit respiration.

Plant Physiology

Refferences
1. Anonymous. 2006. Plants Do It All - Photosynthesis,Respiration, and Transpiration. Chicago:University of Pennysylvania. 2. Decoteau, D. 1998. Journal Environtment Factors and Photosynthesis. Plant Physiology , 6. 3. Lakitan, B. 2000. Dasar-dasar Fisiologi Tumbuhan. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. 4. Rawat, M. 2011. Journal Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Respiration , 36. 5. Salisburry, F. B. 1995. Fisiologi Tumbuhan. Bandung: ITB. 6. Stern, K. R. 2000. Introduction Plant Biology. North America: Mc Graw-Hill Higher Education.