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Nutrition is the provision of materials, usually in form of food , to support life in
Nutrition is the provision of materials, usually in form of food , to support life in

Nutrition is the provision of materials, usually in form of food, to support life in organisms.

NUTRITION Autotrophic Heterotrophic
NUTRITION
Autotrophic
Heterotrophic

Synthesis complex

organic compounds from raw, simple

inorganic substances

using light or

chemical energy

An organism obtains

energy through the intake and digestion of

organic substances,

normally plant and

animal tissues.

AUTOTROPHIC

Chemosynthesis

Uses energy derived from oxidation of inorganic substances

Eg~ Sulphur bacteria which oxidizes sulphur to sulphate and Nitrosomonas sp. Which oxidizes ammonium to

nitrate Photosynthesis Uses energy from sunlight Eg~ All green plants carry out photosynthesis

HETEROTROPHIC
HETEROTROPHIC

Holozoic Nutrition Ingests and digests food to obtain nutrients Eg~ human, animals and insectivorous plants

Saprophytism Obtains nutrients from dead organic matter

Eg~ bacteria and fungi like mushrooms, yeast, and Mucor sp. (bread mould)

Paratism Obtains nutrients from living organisms Eg~ fleas, lice and tapeworms

Balance Diet The necessity for a balanced diet
Balance Diet
The necessity for a balanced diet

A balanced diet refers to a diet which contains the right amount of all the seven classes of food in order to meet the body’s

requirement.

A food pyramid shows the quantities of food group servings a person should should

consume daily.

A balanced diet can be defined as one, which contains the various groups of food stuffs such as energy yielding foods (carbohydrates, fats), body-building foods (protein, minerals), and protective foods (vitamins) in correct propositions.

So that an individual is assured of obtaining the minimum requirements of all the nutrients. The components of a balanced diet will differ according to age, sex, physical activity, economic status, occupation and the physiological state like pregnancy & lactation.

There are no good or bad foods or good or bad diets. All foods contain different

levels of nutrients but no single food can provide all the vitamins and minerals our bodies need in the right amounts.

To maintain good health and to function efficiently our bodies needs proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

Our body also needs plenty of water. We must

drink 1.5 - 2 litres of fluid daily to maintain

healthy kidneys and prevent urinary infection.

The body needs extra fluid when energy expenditure is high and also in hot weather. Water is required in large amounts to regulate body processes such as digestion,

excretion, and maintenance of the body

temperature and the electrolyte balance.

The simple dietary modifications, which people can adopt using the balanced diet

chart or food guide pyramid can help to

reduce the risk of heart diseases and

other diet related conditions such as

diabetes mellitus and some forms of cancer.

• The molecules that act as a source of energy. • The chemical building blocks for

The molecules that act as a source of energy.

The chemical building blocks for growth and repair of damaged body tissuse.

The elements and compounds that participate in a variety of metabolic

reaction.

Group 1. Cereal Grains and Products.

Foods such as rice, wheat, jowar, bajra and ragi are in this group. These supply energy or calories, protein,

invisible fats. These foods also contribute iron,

thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid and fiber.

Group 2. Pulses And Legumes.

Group 1. Cereal Grains and Products. • • Foods such as rice, wheat, jowar, bajra and

The foodstuffs in this group are pulses and legumes (eg beans, soya beans, peas, Rajmah, Bengal grams etc). It provides energy, protein, invisible fat, Vitamin

B1, Vitamin B2, folic acid, calcium, iron and fibres.

Group 1. Cereal Grains and Products. • • Foods such as rice, wheat, jowar, bajra and

Group 3. Milk , Nuts and Meat Products.

They include milk, curd, skimmed milk, cheese, almonds, groundnuts, chicken, meat, liver, egg, fish and other flesh foods. All these foodstuffs supply mainly protein, fat, calcium and vitamin B2.

Group 4. Fruits And Vegetables.

Group 3. Milk , Nuts and Meat Products. • • They include milk, curd, skimmed milk,

These include green leafy vegetables, yellow or orange fruits and vegetables such as papaya, mango, carrots,tomato, pumpkin,

stems, leaves and flowers of plants, ladies finger, bringals,

bittergourds and other gourds, cabbage and cauliflower. Fruits such as amla, lemons, orange are rich in minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin C and calcium, iron and folic acid. They also contribute half of vitamin A requirement. Other major nutrients are invisible fat, vitamin B2 and fibre. They provide variety in

taste and texture and furnish roughage in the diet.

Group 3. Milk , Nuts and Meat Products. • • They include milk, curd, skimmed milk,

Group 5. Fats And Sugars

All these foodstuffs supply energy or calories -

vegetable oils, vanaspathi, ghee, cream, sugar and jaggery. This group constitutes about 1/6th of the

energy value of the diet and provides essential fatty

acids, but does not add appreciably to the protein,

mineral or vitamin adequately. Oils should be used

sparingly in the diet. They add taste and flavour to the food. In India, commonly available cooking oils include mustard oil, coconut oil, gingelly oil, groundnut

oil, palmolein oil, and sunflower oil.

People eat large amounts of foods but still they suffer from malnutrition because they are consuming an unbalanced diet. Eating too much or unbalanced

diets such as more of complex carbohydrates and

fats can lead to obesity and therefore increase the risk of serious conditions such as high blood pressure,

heart disease, diabetes mellitus.

Diets containing foodstuffs drawn from each of the food groups supply all essential nutrients in adequate amounts and keep a majority of individuals consuming them in a good state of health.

Even though the recommended balance of foods applies to most people of all ethnic origins and those who are over weight, few individual variations can be there. Infants under two years of age for example should be given milk products, which is not skimmed. They also need more dairy foods than adults. But between the ages of two and five children make a gradual transition on to family foods - the balanced diet chart or food pyramid begin to apply. People with special dietary needs and those under medical supervision should check with their doctor or nutritionist to see if this balance of foods is suited to them.

Vitamin and mineral supplements are no substitutes for good eating habits. The majority of people will meet all their nutritional requirements by following the basic guidelines out

lined in the balanced diet chart or food pyramid.

• • • Diets containing foodstuffs drawn from each of the food groups supply all essential

Group

Particulars

Kilo Calories

Man

Sedentary work

2350

Moderate work

2700

Heavy work

3200

Woman

Sedentary work

1800

Moderate work

2100

Heavy work

2450

Pregnancy

+ 300

Lactation 0 - 6 months

+ 550

6 - 12 months

+ 400

Group

Particulars

Kilo Calories

Infants

0 - 6 months 6 - 12 months

118 / Kg 108 / kg

Children

1 - 3 years

1125

  • 4 - 6 years

1600

  • 7 - 9 years

1925

Boys

  • 10 - 12 years

2150

  • 13 - 15 years

2400

  • 16 - 18 years

2600

Girls

  • 10 - 12 years

1950

  • 13 - 15 years

2050

  • 16 - 18 years

2050

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 12 MONTHS

Linear relationship and 95 percent confidence and prediction intervals of equation to predict TEE

from body weight in healthy infants, one to 24

months old

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS FROM BIRTH TO 12 MONTHS • Linear relationship and 95 percent confidence

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF CHILDREN AND

ADOLESCENTS

Quadratic polynomial regression of total energy expenditure on body weight, weighting each data

point by the number of children in the study

BOYS

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS • Quadratic polynomial regression of total energy expenditure on body

GIRLS

GIRLS Boys: y = 1.298 + 0.265x - 0.0011x2; nweighted = 801, r = 0.982, see

Boys: y = 1.298 + 0.265x - 0.0011x2; nweighted = 801, r = 0.982, see = 0.518. Girls: y = 1.102 + 0.273x - 0.0019x2; nweighted = 808, r = 0.955, see =

0.650.

Solid circles: DLW, industrialized countries. Solid triangles: HRM, industrialized countries. Clear circles: DLW, developing countries.

Clear triangles: HRM, developing countries.

Mean weight gain of boys and girls,

one to 17 years of age

Age

 

Boys

 

Girls

years

kg/year

g/day

kg/year

g/day

1-2

2.4

6.6

 
  • 2.4 6.6

2-3

2.0

5.5

  • 2.2 6.0

 

3-4

2.1

5.8

 
  • 1.9 5.2

4-5

2.0

5.5

 
  • 1.7 4.7

5-6

2.0

5.5

 
  • 1.8 4.9

6-7

2.2

6.0

 
  • 2.3 6.3

7-8

2.4

6.6

  • 3.0 8.2

 

8-9

2.8

7.7

 
  • 3.7 10.1

9-10

3.3

9.0

 
  • 4.0 11.0

10-11

3.9

10.7

 
  • 4.5 12.3

11-12

4.5

12.3

 
  • 4.5 12.3

12-13

5.2

14.2

 
  • 4.6 12.6

13-14

5.8

15.9

 
  • 4.2 11.5

14-15

5.9

16.2

 
  • 3.4 9.3

15-16

5.4

14.8

  • 2.2 6.0

 

16-17

4.2

11.5

0.8

2.2

17-18

2.6

7.1

0

0

Increase in energy requirements needed to allow for twice the

normal growth rate of children six to 24 months old*

Age

Average weight gain

% increase over

months

g/kg/day

energy requirement

18-24

1.83

14.5

12-18

1.15

8.5

9-12

0.67

5

6-9

0.51

3.5

It was assumed that the requirements for normal growth were 1.5 times the theoretical estimates based on weight gain.

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF ADULTS

 

Time

     

Main daily activities

allocatio

Energy

cost a

Time × energy

Mean PAL b multiple of 24-

n

PAR

cost

 

hours

hour BMR

Sedentary or light activity lifestyle

       

Sleeping

8

1

8.0

 

Personal care (dressing, showering)

1

2.3

2.3

 

Eating

1

1.5

1.5

 

Cooking

1

2.1

2.1

 

Sitting (office work, selling produce, tending shop)

8

1.5

12.0

 

General household work

1

2.8

2.8

 

Driving car to/from work

1

2.0

2.0

 

Walking at varying paces without a load

1

3.2

3.2

 

Light leisure activities (watching TV, chatting)

2

1.4

2.8

 

Total

24

 

36.7

36.7/24 = 1.53

 

Time

     

alloc

Mean PAL b

Main daily activities

ation

Energy cost a PAR

Time × energy cost

multiple of 24-hour

hour

BMR

s

Active or moderately active lifestyle

       

Sleeping

8

1

8.0

 

Personal care (dressing, showering)

1

2.3

2.3

 

Eating

1

1.5

1.5

 

Standing, carrying light loads (waiting on tables, arranging merchandise) c

8

2.2

17.6

 

Commuting to/from work on the bus

1

1.2

1.2

 

Walking at varying paces without a load

1

3.2

3.2

 

Low intensity aerobic exercise

1

4.2

4.2

 

Light leisure activities (watching TV, chatting)

3

1.4

4.2

 

Total

24

 

42.2

42.2/24 = 1.76

 

Time

   

Mean PAL b

Main daily activities

Energy cost a PAR

Time × energy cost

multiple of 24-

 

alloca

tion

hours

hour BMR

Vigorous or vigorously active lifestyle

Sleeping

8

1

8.0

Personal care (dressing, bathing)

1

2.3

2.3

Eating

1

1.4

1.4

Cooking

1

2.1

2.1

Non-mechanized agricultural work (planting, weeding, gathering)

6

4.1

24.6

Collecting water/wood

1

4.4

4.4

Non-mechanized domestic chores (sweeping, washing clothes and dishes by hand)

1

2.3

2.3

Walking at varying paces without a load

1

3.2

3.2

Miscellaneous light leisure activities

4

1.4

5.6

Total

24

53.9

53.9/24 = 2.25

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF PREGNANCY

Additional energy cost of pregnancy in women with an average gestational weight gain of 12 kg *

A.

Rates of tissue deposition

 

1st trimester

2nd trimester

3rd trimester

Total deposition

g/d

g/d

 

g/d

 

g/280 d

 

Weight gain

17

60

 

54

 

12 000

 

Protein deposition a

0

1.3

 

5.1

 

597

 

Fat deposition a

5.2

18.9

 

16.9

 

3 741

 

B.

Energy cost of pregnancy estimated from the increment in BMR and energy deposition

 
 

1st trimester

2nd trimester

3rd trimester

Total energy cost

kJ/d

kJ/d

 

kJ/d

MJ

 

kcal

Protein deposition a

0

30

 
  • 121 370

14.1

3

Fat deposition a

202

732

 
  • 654 600

144.8

34

Efficiency of energy utilization b

20

76

 

77

15.9

3

800

Basal metabolic rate

199

397

 

993

147.8

35

130

Total energy cost of pregnancy (kJ/d)

421

1 235

1

845

322.6

77

100

C.

Energy cost of pregnancy estimated from the increment in TEE and energy deposition

 
 

1st trimester

2nd trimester

3rd trimester

Total energy cost

kJ/d

kJ/d

 

kJ/d

MJ

 

kcal

Protein deposition a

0

30

 

121

14.1

3

370

Fat deposition a

202

732

 

654

144.8

34

600

Total energy expenditure c

85

350

1

300

161.4

38

560

Total energy cost of pregnancy (kJ/d)

287

1,112

2

075

320.2

76

530

Characteristics/ Function:  Normal growth  Healthy eyes and skin Deficiency disease: Night blindness

Characteristics/

Function:

  • Normal growth

  • Healthy eyes and skin

Deficiency disease:

Deficiency disease: Night blindness

Night blindness

Vitamin B comes from Peas, meat, cereals,seafood

Vitamin B comes from Peas, meat,

cereals,seafood

Vitamin B comes from Peas, meat, cereals,seafood
aaaaaaa
aaaaaaa

Characteristics/

Function:

  • As the components of coenzymes

Deficiency disease:

Beri-beri

Vitamin B2 come from yeast, egg and meat.

Vitamin B2 come from

yeast, egg and meat.

Vitamin B2 come from yeast, egg and meat.
Characteristics/ Function:  Healthy growth  Healthy skin Deficiency disease: • Inflammation of lips • Mouth

Characteristics/

Function:

  • Healthy growth

  • Healthy skin

Deficiency disease:

Inflammation of lips Mouth sores

MALNUTRITION

What is malnutrition??

Malnuttrition is a unbalanced

diet….

The effects of malnutrition….

Protein deficiency

kwashiorkor

  • Receive a small amount of protein(distended Stomach and suffer from diarrhoea) ..

marasmus

  • Very thin and wrinkled skin) ..

Not enough protein and carbohydrates(become

Deficiency disease

deficiency in v.c

  • Scurvy(swollen,bleeding gums and tooth Loss… ..

Deficiency in v.d

Ferum shortage

  • Calcium and phosphorus

• Deficiency disease • deficiency in v.c Scurvy(swollen,bleeding gums and tooth Loss… .. Deficiency in v.d

Causes rickets

  • anaemia

osteoporosis

• osteoporosis Lacking in calcium(elderly people) Cause the bones to become porous And break easily…

Lacking in calcium(elderly people)

Cause the bones to become porous

And break easily…

Excessive amount of

carbohydrates and

lipid… ..

• Excessive amount of carbohydrates and lipid… .. obesity 20%more weight than a person height Effects…

obesity

• Excessive amount of carbohydrates and lipid… .. obesity 20%more weight than a person height Effects…

20%more weight than a person height

Effects…

1.High level of cholesterol in blood 2.Cardiovascular disease

3.Diabetes mellitus

Excessive amount of

sodium(salt)

• Excessive amount of sodium(salt) High blood pressure (can cause the damages of kidneys)…

High blood pressure

(can cause the damages of kidneys)…

Excessive amount of vitamins

• Excessive amount of vitamins Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin) Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of

Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin)

• Excessive amount of vitamins Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin) Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of

effect

• Excessive amount of vitamins Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin) Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of

Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of appetite and liver Damage.

Vitamin D

• Excessive amount of vitamins Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin) Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of

effect

• Excessive amount of vitamins Vitamin A(fat soluable vitamin) Hair loss,bone and joint pains, Loss of

Overload in calcium in blood which can interferes The functions of muscles and heart tissue ..

How to prevent malnutrition??

Reducing the amount of Salt in home cooking

How to prevent malnutrition?? Reducing the amount of Salt in home cooking Try to balance your

Try to balance your diet

Prevent yourself from

and carbohydrates in Your foods

taking too much sugar

Regularly…
Regularly…
  • Exercise more and

EXAMPLE OF MALNNUTRITION

EXAMPLE OF MALNNUTRITION
EXAMPLE OF MALNNUTRITION
EXAMPLE OF MALNNUTRITION

Mineral

Function: for the maintenance of good health.

Mineral

Sources

Function

calcium

Milk, cheese,

Combines with

green

phosphorus for

vegetables,

formation of

legumes.

strong teeth & bones.

phosphorus

Milk, cheese, meat, grains.

Combines with calcium to form

strong bones &

teeth.

Sodium( common salt)

Salt

To maintain osmotic pressure

potassium

Fruit

Transmission of nerve impulses.

Ferum( iron)

Liver, kidney, raw egg

Formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells.

Iodine

Sea food

Formation of the hormones.