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Cultivation Theory

Toward Cultural Indicators

Cultivation Theory

Cultivation Theory Model

Cultivation as Theory

RESONANCE - double-dose effect - Refers to when the viewers see the same concept or image over and over again

Cultivation as Theory
MAINSTREAMING - Heavy viewing may absorb or override differences in perspectives and behavior that ordinarily stem from other factors or influences

Cultivation as Theory
ATTENTION - The indication of the presences and frequency of subject elements (topics, themes, etc.) in a message system.

Cultivation as Theory
EMPHASIS - the aspect of composition of message systems which establishes a context of priorities of importance or relevance

Cultivation as Theory
TENDENCY - The position of a system (as of an individual) in time, space, and in the overall structure of social relations enters into the approach, point of view, or direction from which it deals with aspects of existence

Cultivation as Theory

STRUCTURE - Larger availability or proximal structure

Cultivation as Method
1. Content Analysis - Examine the world or reality according to television 2. Audience Research - TV viewing patterns and habits

Cultivation as Method

3. Cultivation Differential - Percentage of the effect to an individual who is exposed to a particular type of content on television

Cultural Indicators Project


Hypothesis: Heavy TV Viewers are more likely to see the world based on television as opposed to Light TV Viewers.

Cultural Indicators Project


Objective: to examine how the media affects peoples perception of reality

Cultural Indicators Project


Content Analysis Annual Index of Violence 1 week/annually for review of primetime US TV programs and identify the frequency of violent content

Cultural Indicators Project


Annual Index of Violence Results
2/3s contain bodily harm 5 violent events for drama/hour

Cultivation Theory
Survey Audience Analysis 1. How big are your chances of being mugged? 2.Are you afraid of walking alone at night? 3. How much of Americans are involved in law enforcement? 4. How often do policemen draw their guns? 5. Do you trust other people?

Cultural Indicators Project


Audience Analysis
Heavy Viewer: 1/10 chances of being a victim Lighter Viewer: 1/100 chance of being a victim Factual: 1/10,000 chance of being a victim

Cultivation Theory
Mean and Scary World Syndrome Heavy TV Viewers tend to have an exaggerated hostile view of the world.

Problems of the Cultivation Theory


1. Distinguishing between Heavy and Light TV Viewers - weak support to TV viewing patterns
2. Content Analysis w/o DISCRIMINATION - too general, not specific

Problems of the Cultivation Theory


3. Method of mean and scary world syndrome too broad.
4. Political jealousies claim that the study was not accurate.