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Flowering Plants

Flower

Leaf

Stem

Roots

A Leaf

Lamina
Midrib Vein

Leaf Structure
Waxy cuticle Epidermis

Palisade mesophyll layer

Air spaces

Spongy mesophyll layer

Stoma

Epidermis

Waxy Cuticle & Epidermis


Waxy cuticle Epidermis The waxy cuticle is a thin layer atop the epidermis. Its function is to reduce the water lost from the leaf. In arid conditions this cuticle layer can be quite thick. Epidermis cells contain no chloroplasts not true of the stoma cells.

They form layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
Their function is to prevent water getting out and stopping unwanted substances/organisms getting in.

Palisade Mesophyll Layer


The palisade mesophyll layer is where most of the photosynthesis occurs in the leaf. Palisade mesophyll layer The palisade cells contain a lot of chloroplasts to help them perform this photosynthesis. The palisade cells are closely packed together to maximize light absorption. In the leaf cross-section shown the palisade cells are only found in the upper part of the leaf.
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Spongy Mesophyll Layer


The cells in the spongy mesophyll layer are not as closely packed as the cells in the palisade mesophyll layer. This creates air spaces inside the leaf to enable gases to move in and out. Spongy mesophyll layer

There are not as many chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll cells as there are in the palisade mesophyll cells but photosynthesis still occurs in the spongy mesophyll layer.

Stomata

Stomata
There are holes found in leaves called stomata. These holes allows gases to diffuse in and out of the leaves. A stoma is formed by two highly specialized epidermis cells. These cells, called guard cells, are the only epidermis cells that contain chloroplasts. The stomata open and close depending upon the requirements of the plant. It is through these stomata that water leaves the leaf, the process that powers transpiration.

Stoma

Stomata

Stoma open During photosynthesis carbon dioxide diffuses in and oxygen diffuses out

Stoma closed When the stomata are closed,often at night or in a humid environment, this stops gases diffusing in and out of the leaf

Key Words
Waxy cuticle Waterproof layer atop the epidermis

Stomata

Pores that allow gaseous exchange


Found in the spongy mesophyll layer, enable gases to reach the leaf cells One-cell thick outer layer of cells that prevent water loss from the leaf Contain numerous chloroplasts and are densely packed Loosely packed cells that do not contain as many chloroplasts as palisade cells
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Air spaces

Epidermis Palisade mesophyll cell Spongy mesophyll cell

Photosynthesis
Chloroplasts are organelles of plant cells that contain a green substance called chlorophyll. Scientists believe chlorophyll absorbs light energy and this energy is then used to make food. The raw materials of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water. The waste product of this reaction is oxygen. The carbon dioxide required is absorbed through the stomata in the leaves this is how the oxygen is also removed. The water required is absorbed by the roots. The word equation for this reaction is...

The chemical equation for this reaction is... 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis Gaseous Exchange

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Photosynthesis Gaseous Exchange & Water

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Investigating Photosynthesis
Chlorophyll makes leaves green, but is chlorophyll required for photosynthesis? Your teacher will give you two leaves, one is completely green. The other leaf is called a variegated leaf. The areas that are not green contain little or no chlorophyll.

Both leaves have previously been destarched. Do you know how to destarch a leaf?
Plan an investigation to discover if chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis.

How will you test to see if photosynthesis has occurred?


What do you predict your results will be? What apparatus will you require? What safety precautions will you need to observe?
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Investigating Photosynthesis
Is carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis? Your teacher will give you two plants, one is enclosed in plastic and contains a chemical that absorbs carbon dioxide. Plan an investigation to discover if carbon dioxide is required for photosynthesis. What do you predict your results will be? What apparatus will you require? Why are two plants used?

How will you evaluate your results?


What chemical will you use to remove carbon dioxide?
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Investigating Photosynthesis

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Using Plants

Humans have used plants for thousands of years. There are many different uses of plants by humans. The cotton plant shown is used to produce cotton for clothing etc.
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Exercise 1: Complete the Table


Stem Rhubarb Celery Root Potato Turnip Carrot Broccoli Potato Cabbage Rhubarb Turnip Leaf Lettuce Cabbage Flower Broccoli Cauliflower

Celery

Lettuce
Cauliflower Carrot
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Exercise 2: The Leaf


1. _____ Vein 2. Lamina ______

3. _______ Midrib

Midrib
Vein Lamina Stalk

Extension of the stalk into the leaf


The blade of the leaf Attaches the leaf to the stem Branch-off from the midrib
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Exercise 3: Label the Parts of a Plant

1. _______ Flower 2. _______ Leaves

3. _____ Stem

4. ______ Roots

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Exercise 4: Label the Parts of a Plant


Leaf

Roots

Stem

Flower

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Exercise 5: Leaf Structure


1. ___________ Waxy cuticle 2. ___________ Epidermis

3. ______________________ Palisade mesophyll layer

4. __________ Air space

5. _____________________ Spongy mesophyll layer

6. ________ Stoma

7. __________ Epidermis

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Exercise 6: Link the Boxes


Waxy cuticle Pores that allow gaseous exchange

Stomata

Found in the spongy mesophyll layer, enable gases to reach the leaf cells

Air spaces

Waterproof layer atop the epidermis

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Exercise 7: Link the Boxes


Epidermis Loosely packed cells that do not contain as many chloroplasts as palisade cells

Palisade mesophyll cell

One-cell thick outer layer of cells that prevent water loss from the leaf

Spongy mesophyll cell

Contain numerous chloroplasts and are densely packed, where most of the photosynthesis occurs
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Exercise 8: Short Questions - Leaf


1. What do we call the continuation of the leaf stalk into the leafblade? Midrib

2. What do we call the specially adapted cells that form holes in the leaves to allow gaseous exchange?
Guard cells 3. What are these holes/pores called? Stomata 4. What is the name of the waxy waterproof layer found on top of the epidermis? Cuticle 5. What is the lamina? The leaf-blade
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Exercise 9: Short Questions - Leaf


1. What do we call the outer one-cell thick layer of cells that contain no chloroplasts? The epidermis

2. What is the function of this layer? To prevent water loss and to stop substances and organisms entering the leaf 3. What are two differences between palisade mesophyll cells (PMC) and spongy mesophyll cells (SMC)?
SMC more loosely packed, less chloroplasts PMC more densely packed, more chloroplasts 4. By what process does carbon dioxide enter and leave leaves? Diffusion

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Exercise 10: Insert the Missing Words


Chloroplasts __________ organelles of plant cells that contain a green substance called __________ chlorophyll . light energy and this Scientists believe chlorophyll absorbs _____ energy is then used to make _____ food . The raw materials of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and _____. This waste product of this reaction is _______ water oxygen . The carbon dioxide required is absorbed through the _______ stomata in the leaves this is how the oxygen is also removed. The water required is absorbed by the roots _____.

roots
water

organelles
chlorophyll

light
oxygen

food
stomata

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Exercise 11: Short Questions - Photosynthesis


1. Which organelles in plant cells contain a green substance called chlorophyll? Chloroplasts 2. Which two raw materials are required by green plants for photosynthesis? Water and carbon dioxide 3. What is the waste product of photosynthesis? Oxygen 4. How does this waste product leave the plant during the day? Through the stomata 5. What process requires this waste product to enable green plants to release energy from their food? Respiration
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Exercise 12: Short Questions Plant Nutrition


1. What do we call the process whereby green plants make glucose using light energy and the raw materials carbon dioxide and water?

Photosynthesis
2. During the night many green plants perform another process whereby they release the energy from their food they have made. What do we call this process? Respiration 3. The sugar glucose, the product of photosynthesis, is changed to starch when it is being stored by the plant. Why? Glucose is soluble in water, starch is insoluble in water. By storing the food starch it means it is easier for the plant to keep the food in the required place 4. What is the chemical formula of glucose? C6H12O6
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Exercise 13: Short Questions Plant Nutrition


1. What is the word equation for photosynthesis?

2. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 3. Name the arrowed organelle. Chloroplast 4. Which substance does this organelle contain that allows green plants to absorb the Suns light energy for the process of photosynthesis? Chlorophyll

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Exercise 14: Variegated Leaf


A destarched variegated plant was left in a sunny garden during the day for several hours. At the end of this period a leaf was taken from the plant and tested for starch. The results are shown below

Variegated leaf before starch test Explain the result observed

Variegated leaf after starch test (8 marks)


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Exercise 15: Products of Photosynthesis


Some destarched pondweed was set-up as below. A bright lamp was placed nearby for two hours. The following results were observed at the end of this period.

Before lamp turned on Explain the result observed

After six hours of lamp shining (6 marks)


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Exercise 16: Short Questions


1. What is a variegated leaf? Parts of the leaf do not contain chlorophyll, other parts do 2. Draw a diagram of a variegated leaf.

3. What is the chemical test for starch? Starch turns orange/brown iodine solution purple/black 4. How do you destarch a green plant? You leave it in the dark for several days so that its food stores (starch) are exhausted
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Exercise 17: Label the Leaf Parts

A C B

A. _______________ Lamina Vein B. _______________ Midrib C. _______________


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Interactive 1

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Interactive 2

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Interactive 3

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Interactive 4

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Interactive 5

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Interactive 6

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Interactive 7

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Interactive 8

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Interactive 9

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Interactive 10

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Interactive 11

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Interactive 12

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Interactive 13

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Interactive 14

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Interactive 15

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