Training needs assessment

Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar


• Training needs can be identified by deducting the existing skills from the job requirements. • A training need exists when there is a gap between what is required of a person to perform his/her work and what he/she knows. • Training needs assessment or analysis is the method of determining if a training need exists and if it does what training is required to full the gap.

• • • • • • To To To To To To determine whether training is needed determine causes of poor performance determine content and scope of training determine desired training outcomes proved the basis of measurement gain management support

• There are three level on needs assessment:
• Organizational analysis • Task analysis • Individual analysis

• Looks at the effectiveness of the organization & determines where training is needed and conditions for its conduction. • OA should identify:
– – – – – – – Environmental impacts State of economy and operating costs Changing work force demographics Changing technology Trends such as workplace harassment Organizational goals and resources available Climate and support for training

Sources of information to conduct OA
• Organizational goals & objectives, mission statements, strategic plans. • Staffing inventory, succession planning, long-and-short-term staffing needs. • Skills inventory: short-term & long-term needs, organizational climate indices – labour management relationships, turnover rates, absenteeism, observations of employee behaviour, accidents, attitude surveys, customer complaints, productivity, grievances.

Sources of information to conduct OA
• Analysis of efficiency indices, costs of labor, costs of materials, quality of products, equipment utilization, production rates, costs of distribution, down time, waste, late deliveries, repairs. • Annual report • Changes in equipment, technology • Planning systems • Delegation and control systems • Plans for reorganization or job restructuring • Employees attitudes & satisfaction

SYSTEM OVERVIEW EXAMPLE Purpose: To gain an understanding of the system, such as department or process.
This will aid the performance process by giving the analysts and developers a background to work from.

 Department: Vehicle Maintenance Date: February 11, 2001 Training Analyst: Dorothy Smith Department Supervisor: Jim Hamilton Summary of Activities: Performs basic maintenance on the company's

vehicles. The maintenance program includes basic tune-ups, changing tires, washing and waxing, diagnostic, replacing parts, oil changes, and lubrication. Fleet includes 76 cars.

Inputs: Number of People: 11 Main Material Used: Car parts such as tires, brakes, mufflers, batteries, spark plugs. Oil, and lubricants. Main Technologies Used: Vehicle diagnostic equipment such as multimeters and oscilloscopes. Tool sets. Air wrenches. Important Time Factors: Due to delivery schedules, the daily preventive maintenance checks on 30 delivery vans must be performed in less than 30 min. Process: Vehicles have several preventive maintenance checks and services
performed on them periodically (daily, monthly, and quarterly). Broken vehicles are repaired as quickly as possible.

Output: Well-maintained and operational company vehicles.

Problems: New personnel have to be trained on the main engine diagnostic

machine as most only know the basic capabilities while the full range of its capabilities are used in this shop. They also have to be trained on the newly acquired delivery van's brake system. Background of Proposed Learners: Average Educational Level: 14 years (Technical Trade College) Average number of years of experience: 6 Average number of years employed by company: 5 Required entry level skills and education: Certificate from trade school or 4 years experience

Anticipated number of learners: Seven, plus future new hires Job requirements verses learner’s skills: Replace brakes (antilock

system) on delivery vans - new hires are not familiar with this system. Advanced capabilities of the diagnostic machines. Language or culture differences of learners: 5 of the employees are from a white middle class background (1 female), 5 are Mexican/American (no females), 1 is Black (male). All are fluent in English. All racial groups seem to respect each other. Motivations of learners: Highly motivated -- they seem to take pleasure in doing quality work. Newly hired personnel seem eager to learn in order to advance. Physical or mental characteristics of learners: All seem physical fit. No apparent mental handicaps from observations or records. Specific interests or biases of learners: Like to talk about cars, racing, women, and sports. Although they seem to respect the one female employee, when she is not around, they sometimes make vulgar jokes about females. This could lead to future problems as the company is presently recruiting more females in all company functions.

• Task analysis provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance.

Sources of information to conduct Task analysis
• • • • • • • • • Job description KSA analysis Performance standards Observe of the Job/sample the work Perform the job Job inventory questionnaire Review the literature about the job Ask questions about the job Analysis of operating problems

Job Description Analysis
Purpose: Provides a job description. This will aid various Human Resources processes, such as training or hiring, by detailing the requirements of the job.   Department: Sales and Service Date: February 11, 2001 Analyst: Marsha Hide Department Supervisor: Sam Gaunter Job Title: Customer Service Clerk Job Code: 0742 Purpose and Description:
Assures that customers receive efficient and courteous service through processing of orders by mail, telephone, or in person. Provides pricing and delivery information. Receives and answers, customer questions and complaints within established guidelines. Acts as liaison between customer and various organization departments. Maintains appropriate records and prepares printed reports. Operates Computer terminal. Performs word processing and related clerical duties.

Supervision required: Light supervision. Number of people supervised: None Skills, Education, and Experience required: High School Diploma. Type a minimum of 45 WPM. Prior experience working with a personal computer. Special job demands (working conditions, travel, hazards, etc.): Must be able to work in a fast paced environment, be a team player, and maintain good relationships with customers

• INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS - analyzes how well the
individual employee is doing the job about and determines which employees need training and what kind.

• Sources of info to conduct IA:
– – – – – – – – Performance evaluation Performance problems Observation Work samples Interviews Questionnaires Attitude surveys Checklists or training progress charts

Steps in needs assess. process
• Training needs assessment process consists of three steps:
– Performing GAP analysis – to determine
causes of training needs in the organizational context.

– Prioritizing the needs - on the basis of
importance to the organization

– Developing action plan - setting the
objectives, identifying suitable training methodology, estimating the cost for the training program and finalizing the dates.

Techniques for investigating Organizational & Personal needs
• • • • • • • • • Direct observation Questionnaires Consultation with key people Review of literature Interviews Focus groups Tests Work samples Behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS)

Advantages of training needs assessment

• Success entails both what the employee does (applying technical knowledge, skills and ability) and how he does it (behaviour demonstrated through interacting and communicating) • Competencies are identified behaviours, knowledge, skills and abilities that directly and positively impact the success of employees and the organization. • Competencies can be objectively measured, enhanced and improved through coaching.

Core competency examples
• Technical & functional enterprise:
knowledge & skills described in observable & measurable terms

• Understanding the business :
mission of the organization

purpose and

• Achieving results : attaining goals & objectives • Serving the customer : fulfilling internal &
external customer needs

• Teamwork :

collaborating & cooperating to get the job

• Interpersonal & communication skills • Leadership & Personal effectiveness

• Leadership :

Motivating, influencing, and supporting others to accomplish team & organizational goals Developing oneself, achieving results and solving problems. Planning, organizing and managing time and work.

• Personal effectiveness :

• A competency model is a descriptive tool that identifies the skills, knowledge and attitude of an employee needed to effectively perform a role in the organization and help the business to meet its strategic objectives. • The model is presented as a learning continuum It is divided into three levels:
– Basic – level at which someone new to skill performs – Intermediate - level at which someone with
detailed knowledge & skills. Operational responsibility for the area.

– Advanced – level at which someone with mastery of a

Competency approach
• Provides a cutting edge guide to:– Reduce ambiguities in job & work expectations – Hire the best available people – Maximize productivity – Enhance 360º feedback processes – Align employee behaviour with organizational strategies & values


Competencies requirements by various heads Self rating by employee on each competency

Missing links Functional heads also define the extent to which an employee possesses a competency


Competency assessment for training public health workers Analytic/Assessment Skills Determines appropriate uses and limitations of both quantitative and qualitative data; Evaluates the integrity and comparability of data and identifies gaps in data sources ; Obtains and interprets information regarding risks and benefits to the community ; Applies data collection processes, information technology applications, and computer systems storage/retrieval strategies Policy Development/Program Planning Skills Collects, summarizes, and interprets information relevant to an issue ; Identifies, interprets, and implements public health laws, regulations, and policies related to specific programs ; States the feasibility and expected outcomes of each policy option Financial Planning and Management Skills Develops and presents a budget ; Manages programs within budget constraints ; Monitors program performance ; Applies basic human relations skills to the management of organizations, motivation of personnel, and resolution of conflicts

• For learning new skills in fast paced biz environment. • For moving to new area of biz or promotions. • Competency assessment tool (CAT) assesses professional competencies. Calculates the skills gap between where you are now and where you want to go. Also makes recommendations on how to get there.

Competency Assess. Tool (CAT)
quickly helps you gain knowledge, by: • Providing a complete list of competencies relevant to a specific area • Evaluating proficiency levels in those competencies • Highlighting specific areas where development is needed • Recommending strategies for

Competency model
• Professional competencies arranged in four categories. They are ii.Personal attributes iii.Leadership qualities iv.Expertise v.Specific skills

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