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# UNIT 5 Special Machines

Content to Discussion
Types of single phase motor Double revolving field theory Cross field theory Capacitor start capacitor run motors Shaded pole motor Repulsion type motor Universal motor Hysteresis motor Permanent magnet synchronous motor Switched reluctance motor Brushless D.Cmotor.

## Types of single phase motor

Resistance Split-phase Motor Capacitor Split-phase Motor Capacitor-start Motor Capacitor-start and Capacitor-run Motor Shaded-pole Motor

## Single-phase Induction Motor

winding used normally in the stator of the single-phase induction motor (IM) is a distributed one. unlike that for a three-phase IM. As the stator winding is fed from a single-phase supply, the flux in the air gap is alternating only, not a synchronously rotating one produced by a poly-phase This type of alternating field cannot produce a torque the rotor is stationery if the rotor is initially given some torque in either direction , then immediately a torque is produced in the motor

## Double field revolving theory

When the stator winding carries a sinusoidal current a sinusoidal space distributed mmf This sinusoidally varying flux is the sum of two rotating fluxes or fields, the magnitude of hich is equal to half the value of the alternating flux the resultant sum of the two rotating fluxes or fields, as the time axis (angle) is changing from 0 to 180

## Double field revolving theory

The flux or field rotating at synchronous speed, say, in the anticlockwise direction, the same direction, as that of the motor (rotor) taken as positive induces emf (voltage) in the rotor conductors. The rotor is a squirrel cage one, with bars short circuited via end rings. the electromagnetic torque isproduced in the same direction as given above, which is termed as positive (+ve). Theother part of flux or field rotates at the same speed in the opposite (clockwise) direction, Two torques are in the opposite direction, and the resultant (total) torque is the difference of the two torques produced slip due to forward (anticlockwise) rotating field and Similarly, the slip due to backward rotating field is also same . The two torques are equal and opposite, and the resultant torque is zero. So, there is no starting torque in a single-phase IM.

Starting Methods
The single-phase IM has no starting torque, but has resultant torque, when it rotates at any other speed, except synchronous speed. It is also known that, in a balanced two-phaseIM having two windings At a space angle of 90 degree electrical. the rotating magnetic fields are produced, as in athree-phase IM. The torque-speed characteristic is same as that of a three-phase one,having both starting and also running torque as shown earlier in a single-phase IM, if an auxiliary winding is introduced in the stator, in addition to the main winding, but placed at a space angle of 90 (electrical), starting torque is produced. The various starting methods used in a single-phase IM are described here.

## Resistance Split-phase Motor

As detailed earlier, another (auxiliary) winding with a high resistance in series is to be added alongwith the main winding in the stator. This winding has higher resistance to reactance R/X ratio as compared to that in the main winding, and is placed at a space angle of 90 degree The current Ia in the auxiliarywinding lags the voltage ( V) by an angle ,a , which is small, whereas the current (Im) in the main winding lags the voltage (V) by an angle, m , which is nearly 90 degree . The phase angle between the two currents is (90 - a ) which should be at least 300 This results in a small amount of starting torque. The switch, S (centrifugal switch) is in series with the auxiliary winding. It automatically cuts out the auxiliary or starting winding, when the motor attains a speed close to full load speed.

## Capacitor Split-phase Motor

The motor described earlier, is a simple one, requiring only second (auxiliary) winding placed at a space angle of 900 from the main winding The phase difference between the Ia and Im is responsible for the starting torque which is a minimum one To get high starting torque, the phase difference required is 900 to achieve such phase difference. The current in the main winding Im is lags the voltage by m and the auxillary current Ia leads the voltage by a so (m + a = 900 ) This can be can be achieved by having a capacitor in series with the auxiliary winding, which results in additional cost, with the increase in starting torque, The two types of such motors are described here.

Capacitor-start Motor

Capacitor-start Motor
It may be observed that a capacitor along with a centrifugal switch is connected in series with the auxiliary winding, which is being used here as a starting winding. The capacitor may be rated only for intermittent duty The switch, S (centrifugal switch) is in series with the auxiliary winding. It automatically cuts out the auxiliary or starting winding, when the motor attains a speed close to full load speed. This motor is used in applications, such as compressor, conveyor, machine tool drive, refrigeration and airconditioning equipment, etc.

## Capacitor-start and Capacitor-run Motor

In this motor (Fig. 34.6a), two capacitors Cs for starting, and CR for running. The first capacitor is rated for intermittent duty, as described earlier, being used only for starting The second one is to be rated for continuous duty, as it is used for running. The phase difference between the two currents is (m + a > 900 ) for both the capacitor is in connection during the starting period The phase difference between the two currents is (m + a = 900 ) for both the capacitor is in connection during the starting period In the second case, the motor is a balanced two phase one, the two windings having same number of turns The efficiency of the motor under this condition is higher. Hence, using two capacitors, the performance of the motor improves both at the time of starting and then running. This motor is used in applications, such as compressor, refrigerator, etc.

Shaded pole motor is a split phase type single phase induction motor. It has a salient pole on the stator excited by a single phase supply and a squirrel cage rotor They have salient stator poles, with one-coil-per-pole called main winding. The auxiliary winding consists of one (or rarely two) shortcircuited copper straps wound on a portion of the pole and displaced from the center of each pole The shaded-pole motor got its name from these shading bands. Induced currents in the shading coil cause the flux in the shaded portion of the pole to lag the flux in the other portion in time. The result is then like a rotating field moving in the direction from the unshaded to the shaded portion of the pole. A low starting torque is produced;

Repulsion-induction motors
repulsion-start and induction-run machines were the most widely used kind of single-phase motor in the range of 1/3 to 5 hp This kind of motor has distributed rotor-windings connected to a commutator (like a dc machine) with short-circuited brushes and a distributed single-phase stator winding in the direct axis only. Brushes are not connected to supply but are shortcircuited consequently, currents are induced in the armature conductors by transformer action.

## Repulsion-induction motors CONSTRUCTION

The field structure has non-salient pole construction. The field structure has non-salient pole construction. The field of stator winding is wound like the main winding of a split-phase motor and is connected directly to a single-phase source. The armature or rotor is similar to a D.C.motor armature with drum type winding connected to a commutator brushes are not connected to supply, Shortcircuiting the brushes effectively makes the rotor into a type of squirrel cage

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
Fig. (1) which shows a two-pole repulsion motor with its two shortcircuited brushes. the brush axis is parallel to the stator field. When the stator winding is energized from single-phase supply, e.m.f. is induced in the armature conductors (rotor) by induction. By Lenzs law, the direction of the e.m.f. is such that the magnetic effect of the resulting armature currents will oppose the increase in flux The direction of current in armature conductors will be as shown in Fig. (1(i)).With the brush axis in the position shown in Fig. (1 (i)), current will flow from brush B to brush A where it enters the armature and flows back to brush B through the two paths ACB and ADB With brushes set in this position, half of the armature conductors under the N-pole carry current inward and half carry current outward. The same is true under S-pole. Therefore, as much torque is developed in one direction as in the other and the armature remains stationary. The armature will also remain stationary if the brush axis is perpendicular to the stator field axis. It is because even then net torque is zero.

If the brush axis is at some angle other than 0 or 90 to the axis of the stator field, a net torque is developed on the rotor and the rotor accelerates to its final speed but the brushes have been shifted clockwise through some angle from the stator field axis. Now e.m.f. is still induced in the direction indicated in Fig. (1 (i)) and current flows through the two paths of the armature winding from brush A to brush B. The direction of rotation of the rotor depends upon the direction in which the brushes are shifted. If the brushes are shifted in clockwise direction from the stator field axis, the net torque acts in the clockwise direction and the rotor accelerates in the clockwise direction

UNIVERSAL MOTOR
A universal motor is defined as a motor which may be operated either on direct or single phase ac supply at approximately the same speed and output. series wound motor, it has high starting torque and a variable speed characteristics. It runs at dangerously high speed on no load Generally universal motors are manufactured in to two types
1. Concentrated pole, non compensated type (low power rating) 2. Distributed field compensated type (high power rating)

## Concentrated pole, non compensated type (low power rating)

The non compensated motor has two salient poles and is just like a two pole series motor expect that whole of its magnetic path is laminated. The laminated stator is necessary because the flux is alternating when motor is operated from a.c supply armature is wound type and is similar to that of a small DC motor

## Distributed field compensated type (high power rating)

The distributed field compensated type motor has a stator core similar to that of a split phase motor and a wound armature similar to that of a small dc motor The compensating winding is used to reduce the reactance voltage present in the armature when motor runs on AC supply. This voltage is caused by the alternating flux by transformer action. Operation of the universal motor is similar to that of the DC series motor . A force created between the stator flux and current in the rotor conductor

Hysteresis Motor
The capacity for a body to remain magnetized after the magnetizing field has

The rotor is typically a cylinder of magnetically hard steel without any windings or teeth. Stator windings are usually a split capacitor type, with the capacitor chosen to approximate two phase operation as closely as possible. Or a shaded pole salient poles also used in sator The high retentivity of the rotor material causes its magneticorientation to lag behind the rotating magnetic field by a fractionof a rotation. Interaction between the rotating field and the rotor's magnetic polarity subjects the rotor to a torque which is constant from standstill to synchronous speed. This design allows synchronization of high inertia loads. Operation is generally smooth and quiet because of the smooth rotor periphery. Hysteresis motors are generally used in low power applications such as clocks.

Switched-Reluctance Motors
Reluctance - the resistance to magnetic flux offered by a magnetic circuit.

In principle, a switched-reluctance motor operates like a variable-reluctance step motor discussed in the previous section. However, the operation differs mainly in the complicated control mechanism of the motor. In order to develop torque in the motor, the rotor position should be determined by sensors so that the excitation timing of the phase windings is precise. Although its construction is one of the simplest possible among electric machines, because of the complexities involved in the control and electric drive circuitry, switched-reluctance motors have not been able to find widespread applications for a long time. However, with the introduction of new power electronic and microelectronic switching circuits, the control and drive circuitry of a switched reluctance motor have become economically justifiable for many applications where traditionally dc or induction motors have been used.

Switched-Reluctance Motors
A switched-reluctance motor has a wound stator but has no windings on its rotor, which is made of soft magnetic material as shown in Figure 12.17. The change in reluctance around the periphery of the stator forces the rotor poles to align with those of the stator. Consequently, torque develops in the motor and rotation takes place. The total flux linkages of phase-A in the following figure is la = La(q) ia and of phase- B is lb = Lb(q) ib with the assumption that the magnetic materials are infinitely permeable. Since the magnetic axes of both windings are orthogonal, no mutual flux linkages are expected between them.

Switched-Reluctance Motors

Brushless DC Motors
DC motors find considerable applications where controlling a system is a primary objective. However, electric arcs produced by the mechanical commutator-brush arrangement are a major disadvantage and limit the operating speed and voltage. A motor that retains the characteristics of a dc motor but eliminates the commutator and the brushes is called a brushless dc motor. A brushless dc motor consists of a multiphase winding wound on a non-salient stator and a radially magnetized PM rotor. Figure 12.18 is a schematic diagram of a brushless dc motor.

Brushless DC Motors
As can be seen, the operation of a brushless dc motor is very similar to that of a PM step motor. The major difference is the timing of the switching operation, which is determined by the rotor position to provide the synchronism between the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the magnetic field produced by the phase windings. The rotor position can be detected by using either Halleffect or photoelectric devices. The signal generated by the rotor position sensor is sent to a logic circuit to make the decision for the switching, and then an appropriate signal triggers the power circuit to excite the respective phase winding. The control of the magnitude and the rate of switching of the phase currents essentially determine the speed-torque characteristic of a brushless dc motor, which is shown in Figure 12.19.