You are on page 1of 35


In the early days of power System ,bus bar were regarded as intrinsically safe and left without specific protection. It was anticipated that system or back up protection would provide sufficient cover. Many feared that accident operation of bus bar protection , if fitted, would cause more disruption than that by a fault on unprotected bars. As power system developed and fault levels increased bus bar protection became essential since damage resulting from one uncleared fault may extend in magnitude up to the complete loss of station by fire. It is now usual to subdivide the bus bar into sections each protected separately. A fault in one section does not involved tripping the complete station. Important loads can be then fed from two or more sections, and will not suffer interruption of supply if one section is tripped.

Requirement of bus bar protection scheme

Complete reliability Must be completely stable under all through fault conditions. Must be capable of complete discrimination between sections of bus bars. Must operate with high speed to minimize damage and maintain system stabillity.

Types of protection system

A number of protection systems have been devised popular among them are Frame earth protection High impedance differential protection Low impedance differential protection

Frame earth protection

Only earth fault system Involves measuring fault current from switchgear frame to earth Switchgear insulated by standing on concrete plinth Only one earth point allowed switchgear C.T mounted on single earth conductor use to energize instantaneous relays All cable glands must be insulated

Differential protection
Uses Merz-price circulating current principle . All current entering and leaving bus bar are compared. One set of CT,s for each circuit associated with a particular zone are all connected to a relay A single element relay gives earth fault protection only. A three element relay gives phase and earth fault protection.

High impedance differential protection

This is a versatile and reliable protection system applied to many different Busbar configurations. if CT requirements are met , scheme performance may be predicated by calculation without heavy current conjunctive tests. Uses equal ratio CT,s .Scheme assumes that with heaviest through fault , one CT saturates , the other not.To ensure stability , voltage setting of relay circuit made higher than voltage developed accros relay circuit. To achieve this an extra relay circuit resistance is required this is non as stabilizing resistance.

aEffective settings
Since in each zone of protection there are sevaeral CT,s in the paralell with the relay and each other, the combined CT magnitising currents will increase the primary operating current. POC=CT ratio (Ir+INLR+NIm) Where Ir = relay setting current IM =CT magnetising current N = number of paralleled CT,s INLR = non linear resistor current at relay setting voltage.

Primary operating current

The value of primary operating current should be arround 30%of minimum fault current avalible . This ensures sufficient relay current during internal fault conditions for high speed operation.

Through fault stability

Busbar protection stability limit is based on maximum through faulrt current. Generally this value is derived from the rating of the associtiated switchgear irrespective of existing faul level,since it can be expected that system will develop up to limit of rating.

Check feature
Usually provided by duplication of primary protection using second set of CTs on all circuits other than bus section and coupler units.Check system forms one zone only,covering whole of the busbar system and not discriminating between faults on various sections

Use of non linear resistor

Under in zone faults conditions it is possible for voltages above the relay withstand of 3kv peak to be produced.metrosil non linear resistor may be necessary to limit the peak voltage below this level. Approximately peak volts=2 Metrosil characteristics :- v=cib where:-v and I are peak values c=constant depending on metrosil construction b=constant in range of .2-.25 The values of c and b are chosen to limit metrosil voltage to less than 3kv peak at maximum fault current.

Metrosil limitation of ray voltage

To ensure primary operating current not adversly affected metrosil constant c must be sufficently high to restrict metrosil current at relay setting voltage VS. Typical currents : 30 ma for use with one ampere CTs
100 ma for use with 5ampere CTs

Differential relays
Relays used for high impedence protection are high stabililty unbiased and tuned to nominal frequency. Two modular types are MFAC14/34

CT wiring supervision
Open circuit connections between CTs and relay circuits result in unbalanced currents whioch may operate the protection. Supervision is applied by voltage relay across differential relay circuit.supervision relays is time delayed gives alarm and also short out bus wires to protect differential relay circuit.typiucal effective setting is 25 primary amperes or 10% of lowest circuit rating which ever is greater.

Current transformers and wiring

CT must be low reactance tyoe(class x)and have identical terms ratio. They should be of similar design or if not of rreasonabely matched magnetic is common character to use CTs having one ampere secendories Load burdens between various sets of CTs must be kept low . Usually bus wires are run in closed ring between breaker control panels. Typical routes:-CTs to marshelling kiosk, MK to isolator yo auxallaries, loop between MK

Isolator auxillary switches

On double bus installations , the two bars are treated as separate zones. The bus isolator switches must carry auxillary contacts to transfer CTs and also tripping sircuits between zones. Auxillary switches should be early make Late break

Tripping circuits
One trip[ping rel;ay device is required for each feeder breaker and two far each bus section or bus coupler breakers.both ma8in and check relays must be energized before triiping relays trip all breakers assocaited with zones

Busbar protection and breaker fail

Where breaker fail protection is applied to a system, back tripping of associated breaker is required in the event of breaker failure. Often,breaker fail protection is arranged in conjunctio with busbar protection tripping circuits to initiate triiping of breakers opn busbar zone associated with field breaker

Low inmpedence busbar protection

Low impedence protection has been used for many paricular on installations where CT output not suuficient for high impedence application. Low impedence protection also operates on circulating cuurrents. Through fault stability often assured by low value stabilizing resistance plus throug load bias