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y Introduction to Gerunds y Using gerunds as the objects of prepositions y Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds. y Common verbs followed by gerunds y Go + gerund y Special expressions followed by ing y Common verbs followed by infinitives y Common verbs followed by either infinitives or gerunds y Reference list of verbs followed by infinitives y It + infinitive; gerunds and infinitives as subjects
y Is the ing form of a verb used as a noun y It is used in the same ways as a noun, as a subject or as an
y Playing tennis is fun. (What is the subject? What is the
main verb?) y We enjoy playing tennis. (What is the subject? Object? Main verb?) y He s excited about playing tennis. (What is the preposition? Object of the preposition?) y Compare
y Walking is good exercise y Bob and Ann are walking.
y A gerund is frequently used as the object of a
y We talked about going to Canada for our vacation. y Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting. y I m interested in learning more about your work. y I m used to sleeping with the window open. y I look forward to going home next month. y We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally
decided we should go.* y *notice- the not precedes the gerund.
y Complete these sentences with an appropriate
preposition and verb form.
y You are capable _______ (do) _________ better work. y I have no excuse _______ (be) _________ late. y I m accustomed ________ (have) __________ a big
breakfast. y The rain prevented us ______ (complete) _________ the work. y Thank you ______ (help) ________ me carrying my suitcases. y I apologized to Yoko _____ (make) ______ her wait for me.
Be excited Be worried Complain Dream Talk Think Apologize Blame (someone) Forgive (someone) Have an excuse Have a reason Be responsible Thank (someone)
About doing it About/of doing it
For doing it
Keep (someone) Prevent (someone) Prohibit (someone) Stop (someone) Believe Be interested Participate Succeed Insist
From doing it
In doing it
On doing it
Be accused Be capable For the purpose Be guilty Instead Take advantage Take care Be tired Be accustomed In addition Be committed Be devoted Look forward Object Be opposed Be used
Of doing it
To doing it
Exercise 2 (page 300) Exercise 4 (page 301) Just write the answers on your paper to turn in
Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. I enjoy playing tennis. y Enjoy is followed by the a gerund (playing). y Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. y Incorrect: I enjoy to play tennis. Phrasal verbs: y Joe quit smoking y Joe gave up smoking y Both sentences mean the same. Some phrasal verbs (like give up) are followed by gerunds. y Other Verbs + Gerunds
Enjoy Postpone (put off ) Keep (keep on) Quit (give up) Discuss suggest Avoid Mind Give up Consider Stop Get through Appreciate Delay Put off Finish (get through) Mention Keep on
y Create a sentence from the given words:
y Enjoy + watching TV y Mind + Open the window y Quit + Eat desserts y Give up + Eat desserts y Keep + work y Keep on + work y Think about + get a job y Avoid +answer my question
y Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic
expressions to express, for the most part, recreational activities. y Did you go shopping? y We went fishing yesterday.
Go birdwatching Go shopping Go fishing Go sledding Go sailing Go bowling Go skinnydipping Go hunting Go boating Go sightseeing Go hiking Go snorkeling
Go camping Go skateboarding
Go jogging Go dancing
Go skating Go running
Go swimming Go skiing
Go canoeing Go window shopping
Go mountain climbing Go kayaking
y Create sentences from the given words.
y Finish + study y Go + dance y Keep + work y Go + bowl y Think about + wear y Enjoy + play y Talk about + go+ swim y Stop + fight y Avoid + go + shop
y -ing forms follow certain special expressions
y Have fun/a good time + -ing y We had fun playing volleyball y We had a good time playing volleyball y Have trouble/difficulty + -ing y I had trouble finding his house. y I had difficulty finding his house. y Have a hard time/difficult time + -ing y I had a had time finding his house. y I had a difficult time finding his house. y Spend + expressions of time or money + -ing y Sam spends most of his time studying. y Waste + expressions of time or money + -ing y I waste a lot of time watching TV. y Sit + expression of place + -ing y She sat at her desk writing a letter y Stand + expression of place + -ing y I stood there wondering what to do next. y Lie + expression of place + -ing y He is lying in bed reading a novel. y Find + (pro)noun + -ing y When I walked into my office, I found George using my telephone. y Catch + (pro)noun + -ing y When I walked into my office, I caught a thief looking through my desk drawers.
y Create sentences from the given verb combinations
y y y y y y y y y y y y
Have trouble + remember Stand (place) + wait Have a hard time + learn Sit (place) + think Have a good time + play Lie (place) + dream Have difficulty + pronounce Have fun + sing and dance Find (someone) + study Spend (time) + chat Waste (money) + try Catch (someone + take
Exercise 6 (page 303) write just the answers on your paper Exercise 7 (page 304) this will count for a quiz grade Exercise 9 (page 305) write just the answers on your paper
y Used gerunds as objects of prepositions y Box 14-3 gave us common preposition combinations
followed by gerunds. y Box 14-4 gave us common verbs followed by gerunds y Go + gerund y Special expressions followed by -ing
y To + the simple form of a verb y To see, to be, to go
y Verb + Infinitive
y I hope to see you again soon. y He promised to be here by ten. y Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive
y Verb + (pro)noun + infinitive
y Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o clock. y The policed ordered the driver to stop. y Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an infinitive. y I was told to be here at ten o clock y These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive.
Hope to (do something) Plan to Intend to Decide to
Promise to Agree to Offer to Refuse to
Seem to Appear to Pretend to Ask to
Expect to Would like to Want to Need to
Gerunds and Infinitives part 2
y Helen borrowed my dictionary for to look up the spelling of
y Helen borrowed my dictionary to look up the spelling of
y The teacher opened the window for letting some fresh air
in the room.
y The teacher opened the window to let some fresh air in the
y I came to this school for learn English.
y I cam to this school to learn English.
y I traveled to Japan for to visit my sister.
y I traveled to Japan to visit my sister.
y In order to is used to express purpose. It answers the
question Why? .
y He came here in order to study English.
y In order is often omitted.
y He came here to study English
y To express purpose, use (in order) to, not for, with a verb.
y Incorrect: He came here for studying English. y Incorrect: He came here for to study English. y Incorrect: He came here for study English.
y For can be used to express purpose, but it is a preposition
and is followed by a noun object.
y I went to the store for some food. y I went to the store to buy some bread.
y Tom went to Chicago for ..
y Tom went to Chicago for some pizza.
y I went to the market for .
y I went to the market for some fresh vegetables.
y Mary went to the market to
y Mary went to the market to buy some fresh fruit.
y I went to the doctor to
y I went to the doctor to have a check-up.
y We were sorry to hear the bad news. y I was surprised to see Tim at the meeting.
y Certain adjectives can be immediately followed by
infinitives. y In general, these adjectives describe a person (or persons), not a thing. y Many of these adjectives describe a person s feelings or attitudes.
y I ve worked hard all day long. Enough s enough! I m ..
y I m determined to relax for the rest of the day.
y Some children grow up in unhappy homes. My family,
however, has always been loving and support. I m .
y I m fortunate to have a good family.
y Ivan s run out of money again, but he doesn t want
anyone to know his situation. He needs money desperately, but he s .
y He needs money desperately, but he s reluctant to ask.
y The box is too heavy for Bob to lift. y The box is very heavy, but Bob can lift it. y In the speaker s mind, the use of too implies a negative
Too heavy = it is impossible for Bob to lift that box. Very heavy = It is possible, but difficult for bob to lift that box.
y Enough follows an adjective
y I am strong enough to lift that box. I can lift it.
y Usually enough precedes a noun
y I have enough strength to lift that box.
y My friend s daughter is 18 months old. Is she too young
or very young? y What is a child too young to do, but an adult old enough to do? y Is it very difficult or too difficult to learn English? y What did you have enough time to do before class today?
y Sue Team
y Write sentences using the following adjectives followed
Glad to (do it) Careful to Sad to Sorry to Surprised to Prepared to Ready to Happy to hesitant to
y Team Good Cake
y Write sentences using the following adjectives followed
Delighted to Ashamed to Shocked to Relieved to Determined to Afraid to Lucky to Certain to Willing to
Ex. 3, page 327 Ex. 4, page 328 Ex. 7, page 330
y Past Infinitive: to have + past participle
y The rain seems to have stopped. y The event expressed by a past infinitive or past gerund
happened before the time of the main verb.
y Past Gerund: having + past participle
y I appreciate having had the opportunity to meet then king.
y Passive Infinitive: to be + past participle
y I didn t expect to be invited to his party.
y Passive Gerund: being + past participle y Past-Passive Infinitive: to have been + past participle
y Nadia is fortunate to have been given a scholarship.
y Past-Passive Gerund: having been + past participle
y I appreciate having been told the news.
y I don t enjoy (tease) __________ by other people.
y I don t enjoy being teased by other people
y I m angry at him for (give, not) __________ me my
y I m angry at him for not giving me my paycheck. y I m angry at home for not having given me my paycheck.
y I expected (invite) __________ to the party, but I wasn t.
y I expected to be invited to the party, but I wasn t.
y Your compositions are supposed (write) __________ in ink.
y Your compositions are supposed to been written in ink.
y Jack Welles has a good chance of (elect)_____________. I
know I m going to vote for him.
going to vote for him.
y Jack Welles has a good chance of being elected. I know I m
y I need to borrow some money.
y Usually an infinitive follows need.
y The house needs painting. y The house needs to be painted.
y In certain circumstances, a gerund may follow need. In
this case, the gerund carries a passive meaning. y Usually the situations involve fixing or improving something.
y The baby s diaper is wet. It needs (change) ________.
y To be changed, changing.
y What a mess! This room needs (clean) ___________
up. We need (clean) ___________ it up before the company arrives.
y To be cleaned, cleaning y To clean
y My shirt is wrinkled. It needs (iron) _________.
y To be ironed, ironing.
y Formal English
y We came to class late. Mr. Lee complained about that fact. y Mr. Lee complained about our coming to class late. y A possessive adjective (our) is used to modify a gerund. y Mary came to class late. Mr. Lee complained about that fact. y Mr. Lee complained about Mary s coming to class late. y A possessive noun (Mary s) is used.
y Informal English
y Mr. Lee complained about us coming to class late. y The object form of a pronoun (us) is used. y Mr. Lee complained about Mary coming to class late. y The possessive form is often not used.
y You took the time to help us. We greatly appreciate
y We greatly appreciate your/you taking the time to help
y We talked about him behind his back. The boy
resented that fact.
y The boy resented our/us talking about him behind his
Ex 9, page 332 Ex 10, page 333 Ex 12, page 334