Chapter 14

Mechanical Hazards and Machine Safeguarding

Major Topics • OSHA’s requirements regarding machine guarding • Risk assessment in machine guarding • Robot safeguards • Lockout/tagout systems • General precautions • Taking corrective action .

They cause swelling and intense pain. Crushing: Injuries from crushing typically occur when a part of the body is caught between two hard surfaces that progressively move together thereby crushing anything between them such as a metal stamping machine. veins. Shearing: Power driven shears for severing paper. • • • • . Breaking: Machines used to deform engineering materials in a variety of ways can also cause broken bones. and even bones. muscles. Puncturing: Punching machines have sharp tools that can puncture body parts and cause damage to internal organs if safety precautions are not observed or if appropriate safeguards are not in place. meshing gears and belt pulleys. A sprain is the result of a torn ligament in a joint. Straining and Spraining: A strain results when muscles are overstretched or torn. arteries.Common types of mechanical injury hazards • • Cutting and Tearing: The seriousness of cutting and tearing the skin by a sharp edge depends on how much damage is done to the skin. metal. plastic and composite materials are widely used in manufacturing. Such tragedies typically occurred when operators reached under the shearing blade to make an adjustment or placed materials there and activated the blade before removing their hand. Such machines often amputated fingers and hands.

including mechanical and electrical failure. • Caused by direct result of machine malfunction. . • From machine via flying metal chips.Concept of safeguarding • Machine safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of machine-operator contact. distraction. curiosity or deliberately taking a chance. and hot metal splashes. • The contact can be because of inattention caused by fatigue. chemicals. and circular saw kickbacks.

power presses. etc. and electronic sensors) must be provided to protect people from point of operation hazards such as nip points. Machines requiring point of operation guards: guillotine cutters. rotating parts.OSHA’s requirements for machine guarding • • • • 29CFR 1910. portable power tools. jointers.212 – OSHA’s requirement for all industries: Types of guarding: One or more methods of machine guarding (barriers. Anchoring fixed machinery: Machines that are designed to be in one location must be securely anchored to prevent movement. General requirements for machine guards: Where possible guards should be affixed to the machine in such a way that they do not create hazards themselves. alligator shears. tripping devices. hair. twohand switches. milling machines. and calendars. Exposure of blades: Fans must be guarded if the blades are less than seven feet above the floor or working level – guards shall have no opening that exceeds one half inch. in such a way as to prevent the machine operator from having any part of their body (including clothing. shears. Guarding the point of operation: Any point of operation that might expose a person to injury must be guarded. forming rolls. • • • . power saws.) in the danger zone during the operating cycle of the machine. flying chips and sparks.

• 6. Protect against falling objects: safeguards must also shield the moving part of machines from falling objects. Create no interference: safeguards that create interference are likely to be disregarded or disabled by workers feeling the pressure of production deadlines. unfinished surface. Create no new hazard: safeguards with a sharp edge.Requirements for all safeguards • National Safety Council safeguard requirements: • 1. Allow safe maintenance: such as lubrication without the removal of guards. • 2. . • 4. • 3. or protruding bolts introduce new hazards while preventing against the old. Be secure and durable: Workers should not be able to render them ineffective by tampering or disabling them. Prevent Contact: safeguards should prevent human contact (operator or any other person) with any potentially harmful machine part. • 5.

• 2. May limit visibility. Fixed guards: allow a permanent barrier between worker and the point of operation. Interlocked guards: shut down the machine when the guard is not in place. May be sometimes easily disengaged. Adjustable guards: prevent against variety of different hazards. Suitable for high production repetitive operations.Types of point-of-operation guards • 1. and normal cleaning and maintenance. Do not provide dependable barrier as other guards. Allows safe access to machine for removing jams or conducting routine maintenance. • 3. .

• Radio frequency devices: are capacitance devices that stop the machine if the capacitance field is interrupted by the workers body or another object. • Gates: provide barrier between danger zone and workers. Stop the machine when tripped. • Pullback devices: pull the operator’s hand out of the danger zone when the machine starts. • Electromechanical devices: If the worker moves the contact bar beyond a specific point the machine will shut down. • Restraint devices: hold the operator back from the danger zone. and body bars. • Safety trip devices: trip wires. Do not protect against mechanical failure. • Two hand controls: require the operator to use both hands to activate the machine. trip rods. and can be only used with machines that can be stopped. .Point-of-operation devices • Photoelectric devices: shut down the machine whenever the light field is broken.

Eliminate the need of operators to enter the danger zone. . Limited in type and variations in stock they can feed. Similar advantages and disadvantages to automatic ejection. • Automatic ejection: systems eject the work pneumatically or mechanically. movable dies. • Semiautomatic ejection: activated by operator. • Semiautomatic feed: Chutes.Advantages and disadvantages of feeding and ejection systems • Feeding and ejection systems can be effective safeguards if properly designed and used. • Automatic Feed: systems feed stock to the machine from rolls. Require auxiliary barrier guard and frequent maintenance. plungers. Operators do not have to reach into danger zone. and sliding bolsters – same advantages as automatic feed. dial feeds. Disadvantages are debris and noise (pneumatic).

Hazards of robots • 1. . Impact with a moving robot arm. Impact with objects ejected or dropped by robot. • 3. • 2. Entrapment of worker between robot and solid surface.

Should be able to withstand the force of the heaviest object the robot could eject. • Safeguards are important because robots can be deceptive – may be at a stage between cycles. and make a sudden and rapid movement. • Shutdown guard that shuts the robot down if any person or object enters the work envelope.Robot Safeguards • Erect a physical barrier around the entire perimeter of a robot’s work envelope. . • Sensitive doors or gates in the perimeter barrier that shut the robot down if opened.

.14 p 315).Lockout System • Placing a lockout device such as a padlock on an energy isolating device to prevent the accidental or inadvertent energizing of a machine or piece of equipment (fig 14.

Tagout system • Placing a tag on a energy isolation device to warn people so that they do not accidentally or inadvertently energize a machine or equipment (see fig 14-15 p. . 315).

tools and equipment.Impact of lockout/tagout system • Protect people in the workplace from hazardous energy while they are performing service or maintenance on machines. .

Main provisions of OSHA’s lockout/tagout system • • Energy control program: Organizations must have an energy control program that have fully documented energy control procedures. and secure machines or equipment. Periodic inspections: At least annually. procedural steps to shut down. removal and transfer of lockout/tagout devices and responsible person. Requirements for lockout/tagout devices: durable to withstand the environment to which they will be exposed. provide employee training. isolate. Employee training: provide initial training and retraining as required and certify that necessary training has been given to all employees (authorized. • • • • • • • . Device must be able to be locked out/ tagged out. Additional safety requirements: follow specific procedure (see text book). block. Energy-isolating devices: for preventing the accidental or inadvertent release of energy on all machines and equipment. affected and other). and certify the inspections have taken place. Energy control procedure: a statement on how the procedure will be used. and ensure periodic inspections. specific requirements for testing machinery or equipment. Removal of Locks or tags: follow appropriate procedure (see text book). steps designating the safe placement. Applications of controls and lockout/tagout devices: follow appropriate procedure (see text book).

abrasion) S2 Severe injury (amputation or death) Frequency of exposure to potential hazards (F): F1 Infrequent exposure F2 Frequent to continuous exposure Possibility of avoiding the hazard if it does occur (P): P1 Possible P2 Less possible to not impossible Likelihood that the hazard will occur (L): L1 Highly unlikely L2 Unlikely L3 Highly likely .Risk Assessment in Machine Operation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Quantifying the level of risk associated with the operation of a given machine: Severity of potential injuries (S): S1 Slight injury (bruise.

Before machine is activated are employees notified. Are all workers notified when machinery or equipment they usually use is shut down and locked out for maintenance or servicing purposes. Are employees required to check the safety lockout by attempting a startup after making sure no one is exposed. Have employees been trained not to start machinery if it has been locked out or tagged out. servicing. . After the safety is checked does the employee does the employee again place the switch in the off position. Does lockout procedure require that all stored energy be released or blocked before the equipment is locked out.Evaluating lockout/tagout programs • • • • • • • • Are all machinery or equipment capable of movement required to be deenergized or locked out during cleaning. adjusting or setup operations. Are all equipment control valve handles equipped with a means for locking out.

• Lockout/tagout is designed to prevent injuries from the accidental energizing of machines or equipment while they are shut down for maintenance or servicing. .Summary • The most common mechanical injuries are cutting and tearing. • When hazards or hazardous behavior is observed corrective action should be taken immediately. • OSHA standard for machine guarding is 29CFR 1910. • Safeguarding involves devices or methods that minimize the risk of accidents resulting from machine-operator contact. • The best safeguard for a robot is a barrier around the perimeter of its work envelope.212.

Summarize the main provisions of OSHA’s lockout/tagout standard. 3. 3. 1. 11. . and 13 on pages 320-321. Explain how to guard against the hazards associated with robots.Home work • • • • • • • Answer questions 1. 10. What is a lockout system? 11. 9. What is a tagout system? 13. List and briefly explain the common types of mechanical injury hazards. 9. Summarize OSHA’s requirements for machine guarding. 10.

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