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Psychology 2

Chapter 2: The Physiological Basis of Behavior Print slides 33-44

Biological Perspective
Biological Psychology Scientific study of how biological processes and structures influence behavior.

1. Brain Research Methods

2. The Brain

How do we know about the brain? Research Methods


Research strategy Localize function

Identifying the brain structures that control a specific behavioral or psychological function. Fear, moving hand

How do we know about the brain? Research Methods


Two ways Researchers do this 1. Map Brain Structure 2. Map Brain Function
a) Invasive Techniques Cutting open a persons head. b) Non-Invasive Techniques Not cutting open.

Mapping Brain Structure


1.

2.

Computed Tomographic (CT) Scanning- Uses x-rays to produce images of the brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Uses a magnetic field to produce 3-D image of the brain.
Gives more detailed images.

Mapping Brain Function: Invasive Techniques

Cutting head open.


1. Brain Tissue Removal 2. Brain Tissue Stimulation

Amygdala and fear response.

Mapping Brain Function: Invasive Techniques


Tissue Removal 1. Ablation Surgically removing parts of the brain.
Amygdala removal reduces fear response.

Mapping Brain Function: Invasive Techniques


Tissue Removal 2. Deep Lesioning electrode (thin wire) is inserted deep in the brain and destroys a little piece of the brain.
Behavior changes resulting from tissue damage. Amygdala damage reduces fear response.

Mapping Brain Function: Invasive Techniques


Tissue Stimulation Electrical Stimulation of Brain (ESB) Stimulating areas of brain with an electrode carrying an electrical current.
Amygdala stimulation increases fear response.

Mapping Brain Functions: Non-Invasive Techniques


1. Clinical Case studies

2. Electroencephalography (EEG)
3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

4. Functional MRI

Clinical Case Study


Deep examination of a person with brain damage.
Interviews, tests, observations Determine how personality and behavior change.

Clinical Case Study


Examination of 33-Year old Kate Adamson
1. Stroke that Damaged Brain Stem.
2. Resulted in locked-in syndrome: All voluntary

muscles, except eye muscles, are paralyzed. (Consciousness locked in body). 3. What does this suggest about the brain stem?

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan


1. Brains glucose marked

with a radioactive substance, which is placed inside brain. 2. When Marked glucose is metabolized by brain, it emits positron particles. 3. PET scan detects positron particles.
High positrons mean what?

Functional MRI
Using magnetic field to detect active areas of the brain. Red, yellow: High activity. Green, blue and pink: Low activity

Mapping Brain Functions: Less Invasive Techniques


1. Clinical Case studies

2. Electroencephalography (EEG)
3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

4. Functional MRI

Review
Research strategy Localize function
Identifying the brain structures that control a specific behavioral or psychological function.

Two ways Researchers do this 1. Map Brain Structure 2. Map Brain Function
a) Invasive Techniques Cutting open a persons head. b) Less Invasive Techniques Not cutting open.

1. Brain Research Methods

2. The Brain

The Brain

Review

Parts of Brain 1. Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex 2. Forebrain 3. Midbrain 4. Hindbrain

Cerebral Cortex as four lobes

Review

Review

Parts of Brain 1. Cerebrum/Cerebral Cortex 2. Forebrain 3. Midbrain 4. Hindbrain

Forebrain
Consists of limbic system 1. Limbic System group of brain structures responsible for the production of emotions and motivating behaviors
1. 2. 3. 4. Amygdala Fear and aggression Hypothalamus Parts of Thalamus Hippocampus

Forebrain

Hypothalamus controls emotion and basic motivations (sex, eating, sleeping, laughter)

Forebrain

Thalamus sensory relay station for sensory information on way to the cerebral cortex; like brains post office.

Delivers incoming information to appropriate place in cerebral cortex.


Hearing sensory information Temporal lobe Visual sensory information Occipital Lobe

Forebrain

Hippocampus stores memories into the brain.


(Damage leads to Anterograde Amnesia the inability to learn and retain new information)

Forebrain
Consists of limbic system 1. Limbic System group of brain structures responsible for the production of emotions and motivating behaviors
1. 2. 3. 4. Amygdala Hypothalamus Parts of Thalamus Hippocampus

Review

Review

Midbrain
Connects hindbrain with forebrain.

Hindbrain/Brainstem
Where spinal cord meets brain. Consists mainly of the following structures. Medulla Pons Cerebellum Reticular Formation

1.

2.
3. 4.

Hindbrain/Brainstem

Medulla Controls Vital Life Functions (heart rate, breathing, swallowing) (Getting shot here)

Hindbrain/Brainstem

Pons Bridges Medulla with other parts of the brain. (Getting shot here)

Hindbrain/Brainstem

Cerebellum Regulates balance and coordination. (Damage Drunk person)

Hindbrain/Brainstem

Reticular Formation Network of fibers and cell bodies inside brainstem. Influences attention and arousal. (Classroom attention)

Review

Review