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Assignment of Ophthalmology

Misbah Iqbal Roll No. 14046

MCQ No-1

Optic disc is also known as a. b. c. d. Macula lutea Blind spot Fovea Rods and cones

MCQ No-1

Ans (b) Explanation: Optic disc is the point where optic nerve enters the retina. It is devoid of rods and cones so also called blind spot.

MCQ No-2

The avascular structure of eye is a. b. c. d. Choroid Lens Conjunctiva Ciliary body

MCQ No-2

Ans (b) Explanation: Lens is an avascular structure which receives its nutrition from vitreous humor.

Ospe No. 1

a. Name the chart b. What is its use? c. What is achromatopsia?

Ospe No. 1

a. Ishihara chart b. It is used to test the color vision c. Colour blindness

Ospe No. 2

a. Name the lesion b. What are the other sites of this lesion?

Ospe No. 2

a. Homonymous hemianopia b. Optic tract, optic radiations and occipital lobe.

Seq No. 1

Name the parts of the visual pathway


Ans. The Visual pathway consist of 1. The Optic nerves 2. The optic chiasma 3. The optic tracts 4. The lateral geniculate bodies 5. The optic radiations 6. The occipital cortex

Seq No. 2

Enlist the name of the lesions of the visual pathway 1. Hemianopia 2. Amblyopia 3. Amaurosis

1. Hemianopia
Hemianopia is a condition of loss of half of the field of vision of both eyes. Types of Hemianopia are: a. Homonymous hemianopia b. Bitemporal hemianopia c. Binasal hemianopia 2. Amblyopia (Blunt) There is partial loss of sight in one or both eyes in the absence of opthalmoscopic or other marked objective signs.

Types of Amblyopia: a. Unilateral amblyopia b. Bilateral amblyopia

3. Amaurosis (Dark)
There is complete loss of sight in one or both eyes in the absence of ophthalmoscopic or other marked objective signs. Types of Amaurosis: a. Unilateral amaurosis b. Bilateral amaurosis

MCQ No-1

The most accurate method of measuring IOP is


a. b. c. d. Digital tonometry Applanation tonometry Schiotz tonometry Gonioscopy

MCQ No-1

Ans (b) Explanation:


It measures the IOP by flattening rather than indent the cornea over a specific area,the pressure values recorded are uninfluenced by scleral rigidity.

MCQ No-2

Angle of anterior chamber is studied with


a. b. c. d. Indirect ophthalmoscopy Gonioscopy Retinoscopy Amblyoscope

MCQ No-2

Ans (b)
Explanation: The angle of anterior chamber can not be visualized directly through intact cornea. A goniolens eliminates total internal reflection and makes the angle stucture visible.

Ospe No. 1

a. What is the method being performed? b. What is its use? c. What are the other methods to measure IOP?

Ospe No. 1

a. Applanation tonometery b. It is used to measure the IOP c. Schiotz tonometery & Digital tonometery

Ospe No. 2

a. Name the test being performed. b. What are the uses of this test?

Ospe No. 2

a. b. 1. 2.

Distant direct ophthalmoscopy. It is used to: Confirm the transparency of media. Localize the position of opacity in the media.

Seq No.1

What is ophthalmoscopy? What are its types? What is direct ophthalmoscopy? Examination of interior of the eye using an ophthalmoscope is called ophthalmoscopy.

Types of ophthalmoscopy: a. Distant direct ophthalmoscopy b. Direct ophthalmoscopy (fundoscopy) c. Indirect ophthalmoscoy Direct ophthalmoscopy This is the routine method for the fundus examination carried out at a very close distance from the eye. The retinal image is real, upright and 15 times magnified. The field of view is small and retina could be seen upto equator only.

Seq No.2

What is regurgitation test? Give the procedure.

This method is used to test the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct.

Procedure: Ask the patient to look up and press upon the lacrimal sac with little finger or pull the lower eyelid down with middle finger and press upon the lacrimal sac with index finger, the content of lacrimal sac will come out of puncti.

MCQ No-1

Blepharitis is an inflammation of
a. b. c. d. Lid Eyelashes Lid margin Molls gland

MCQ No-1

Ans (c) Explanation:


Subacute or chronic inflammation of the eyelid margin is called blephritis. It could be anterior or posterior blephritis.

MCQ No-2

Chalazion is a chronic inflammatory granuloma of


a. b. c. d. Meibomian gland Zeis gland Molls gland Wolfring gland

MCQ No-2

Ans (a) Explanation:


Obstruction of the orifice of the meibomian gland either due to infection or unknown causes results into accumulation of sabecious secretions within acini of gland

Ospe No. 1

a. Give the diagnosis. b. What is the causative agent? c. Give the D/D.

Ospe No. 1

a. b.

Hordeolum internum. Staphylococcus aureus Stye Nodular fascitis Pre septal cellulitis

Ospe No. 2

a. Give the diagnosis. b. What is the T/M?

Ospe No. 2

a. Senile ectropion. b. It involves various surgical procedures: 1) medial conjuctivoplasty 2) the horizontal lid shortening.

Seq No.1

What is ptosis? Give the classification of ptosis.

PTOSIS: It is an abnormal drooping of the upper eyelid.

Classification: 1) congenital 2) acquired neurogenic Myogenic Aponeurotic Mechanical

Seq No.2

Define entropion? Types? Name the procedures for the T/M of senile type. Entropion: The eyelid margin turned towards eyeball.

Classification: 1) congenital 2) acquired Senile Cicatricial Acute spastic mechanical T/M of senile entropion: Weis procedure Fox procedure Modified wheelers operation

MCQ No.1

Epiphora occurs in

a. Irits b. Trachoma c. Chronic dacryocystitis d. Acute congestive glaucoma.

MCQ No.1

Ans (c)

Explanation:
Chronic inflammation of lacrimal gland causes epiphora which is the watery eye due to obstruction to the drainage of tears.

MCQ No.2

The Tear film has a. b. c. d. Mucous layer Aqueous layer Lipid layer All of the above

MCQ No.2

Ans. (d) Explanation: The tear film consists of mucous layer, aqueous layer and lipid layer.

Ospe No. 1

a. Diagnose the case b. Give its etilogy c. What is the treatment?

Ospe No.1

a. Acute dacryocystitis b. It may arise de novo or more commonly as a secondary infection by pyogenic organisms after nasolacrimal duct obstruction. c. Antibiotics, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, hot fomentation

Ospe No. 2

a. Give the diagnosis b. What is the etiology? c. Give its treatment

Ospe NO. 2

a. It is the chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac. b. The impaired outflow of the sac leads to the stasis of tears which eventually leads to secondary infection by low virulence organisms. c. Dacryocyctorhinostomy (DCR) Operation.

Seq No. 1
What are the complications of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction? Give the D/D.

Complications :
a. b. c. d. e. Mucocele Conjunctivitis Chronic dacryocystitis Acute dacryocystitis Fistula formation

Differential diagnosis: a. Punctal atresia b. conjunctivitis c. congenital glaucoma it is important to exclude congenital glaucoma with watery eye.

Seq No. 2

What is epiphora? Give its types and causes. Epiphora :


It is watering form an eye due to obstruction to the drainage of tears. Types and Causes : 1. Obstructive epiphora is due to mechanical obstruction caused by.

a. b. c. d. e.

Trauma Punctal stenosis Involutional stensosis of nasolacrimal duct. Canalicular atresia Chronic sinus disease

2.Lacrimal pump failure is due to the inability of the

pumping mechanism to drain tears, despite the patent drainage system. It is caused by:
a. Lower lid laxity b. Facial palsy c. Lower lid ectropion

MCQ NO. 1

Trantos dots are seen in


a. Acute bacterial conjuntivitis. b. Viral conjunctivitis c. Vernal kerato conjunctivitis d. All of the above

MCQ NO. 1

Ans (c) Explanation:


These are discrete,white superficial spots composed of eosinophils found in limbal form of keratoconjunctivitis.

MCQ NO. 2

Bitot spots are seen in


a. b. c. d. Spring catarah Vit A deficiency Vit c deficiency Pterygium

MCQ NO. 2

Ans (b) Explanation:


Bitot spots are triangular patches of foamy epithelium in inter palpebral region. It consist of keratinized epithelium, inflammatory cells, debris and corynebacterium xerosis.

Ospe No. 1

a. Give the diagnosis b. What is its pathology?

Ospe No. 1

a. Giant papilae (VCK) b. It is an allergic reaction of type 1 or type 4 hypersensitivity.

Ospe No. 2

a. Give the diagnosis b. What is its cause? c. Give its T/M.

Ospe No. 2

a. Pterygium b. It is an age related degenerative hyperplastic condition c. Tear substitutes, sunglasses to avoid UV and surgical excision.

Seq No. 1

Define trachoma. Give its WHO classification.

Trachoma :
It is chronic bilateral cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis.

Classification: TF= trachoma follicles with 5 or more on superior tarsus TI= inflammation diffusely involving the tarsal conjunctiva which obscure 50% or more of deep tarsal vessels TS= trachomatous conjunctival scarring TT= trachomatous trichiasis touching the lobe CO= corneal opacity over the pupil sufficient to blur the iris details.

Seq No. 2

Define pterygium and give its pathology.

Pterygium :
A fibrovascular C.T overgrowth encroaching upon the cornea from the conjunctiva.

Pathology : A degenerative hyperplastic conndition of conjunctiva. Subconjunctival tissue undergo elastotic degeneration and proliferate as vascularized granulation tissue, under the epithelium, ultimately enchroaches the cornea. Corneal epithelium, bowmans membrane and superficial stroma are destroyed.