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Chapter 6

Policing in America

Chapter Learning Objectives


1. Understand how policing in America grew out of the English model. 2. Describe the philosophy of the London Metropolitan Police. 3. Explain the different levels of policing in the United States. 4. List and explain the different functions of police. 5. Understand the importance of police patrol. 6. Explain the concept of community policing and how it is an effective method of crime prevention.

Introduction to the Administration of Justice 2012

Chapter Learning Objectives


7. Understand the SARA model of police problem solving. 8. Understand the concept of police discretion. 9. Identify when police are authorized to use force and when force is considered to be unreasonable or excessive.

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Early English History


Prior to 1066 England utilized the tything system All citizens within each county were divided into divisions of ten called tythings Each tything was part of a larger group which was organized under a hundred-man Each hundred-man was responsible to the Shire-reeve (sheriff)

Introduction to the Administration of Justice 2012

Early English History


1600s to 1700s The tything-man became the constable The Shire-reeve became the Justice of the Peace The towns and cities set up a system of paid citizens, called watchmen The watchmen system began to fail in the late 1700s and became completely ineffective in the early 1800s The military had to come into large cities, like London, to control the growing unrest in the cities

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London Metropolitan Police


Sir Robert Peel 1829 Peel was instrumental in passing the Metropolitan Police Act Called the new police, the met, or the bobbies

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Original Philosophy of the Met


1. To reduce tension and conflict between law enforcement officers and the public. 2. To use nonviolent means in keeping the peace. 3. To relieve the military from controlling urban violence. 4. To be judged on the absence of crime rather than through high-visibility police action

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The Met Today


Two basic operating philosophies: 1. They do not carry firearms on routine patrol or when answering calls for service 2. To be judged on the absence of crime rather than through high-visibility police action How do these philosophies compare with those of police departments in the United States? What do you think would happen if guns were taken away from all police in the United States tomorrow?
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Early Police in America


Our system was based on the British system We established constables and watchmen Policing became more formalized as our cities grew in size

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Police Today
Three distinct levels of law enforcement: Federal State Local

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Federal Law Enforcement


Diverse assortment of agencies There is no National police department Each agency of the federal government has an enforcement arm that has police powers to enforce the policies and laws of each of these agencies. These agencies include:
1. Department of the Treasury (Internal Revenue Service) 2. Department of Agriculture 3. Department of the Interior 4. Department of Commerce 5. Department of State 6. U.S. Postal Service 7. Department of Defense
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Federal Law Enforcement


The federal government also has law enforcement agencies that are tasked with specific law enforcement duties, including: 1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 2. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) 3. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) 4. U.S. Marshals Service

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Federal Bureau of Investigation


Founded in 1908 by President Theodore Roosevelt FBI today: Over 35,000 employees Almost 14,000 special agents 56 major field offices Over 400 smaller offices 60 international offices

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Federal Bureau of Investigation


Priorities of the FBI today:
1. Protect the United States from terrorist attack. 2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage. 3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes. 4. Combat public corruption at all levels. 5. Protect civil rights. 6. Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises. 7. Combat major white-collar crime. 8. Combat significant violent crime. 9. Support federal, state, local, and international partners. 10. Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBIs mission
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Drug Enforcement Administration


Established in 1973 by President Richard Nixon Established to combat an all-out war on the drug menace More than 5,200 Special Agents Mission: Enforce the controlled substances laws of the United States Reduce the availability of illicit drugs on the domestic and international markets

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Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives


Originally established in 1789 1968 it was given the title of ATF 1972 ATF was given the additional duties related to explosives (but retained the initials ATF)

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U.S. Marshals Service


Oldest federal law enforcement agency in the United States Established September 24, 1789 by President George Washington Today there are 94 U.S. Marshals (one for each federal district court) and almost 4,000 deputy U.S. Marshals The U.S, Marshals Service has a variety of responsibilities

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Federal Law Enforcement Employment


Agency U.S. Customs and Border Protection Federal Bureau of Prisons Federal Bureau of Investigation U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Secret Service Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts* Drug Enforcement Administration U.S. Marshals Service Veterans Health Administration Internal Revenue Service, Criminal Investigation Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives U.S. Postal Inspection Service U.S. Capitol Police National Park Service - Rangers Bureau of Diplomatic Security Pentagon Force Protection Agency U.S. Forest Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Park Service - U.S. Park Police National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Mint Police Amtrak Police Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management full-time officers 36,863 16,835 12,760 12,446 5,213 4,696 4,308 3,313 3,128 2,636 2,541 2,288 1,637 1,404 1,049 725 644 598 547 363 316 305 277 255

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State Law Enforcement


Just like the federal government, each state has enforcement arms for many of their state agencies Enforce the agencies laws and assist local agencies with specific complex criminal investigations The most visible of the state law enforcement agencies is the highway patrol or the state police agencies Every state except Hawaii has one of these agencies

What is the difference between a highway patrol and a state police agency?
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County Law Enforcement


Most country law enforcement is conducted by a sheriffs department There are over 3,000 sheriffs offices in the United States Sheriff departments perform a variety of functions. What are some of these functions?

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City (Municipal) Law Enforcement


Largest segment of law enforcement in the United States Over 12,500 local police agencies Over 463,000 sworn officers Smallest agencies have one sworn officer Largest (New York City) has almost 40,000 sworn officers About half of all local agencies have 10 officers or less

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Specialized Police Agencies


These agencies include: 1. School District Police 2. Campus Police 3. Park Police 4. Constables 5. Transit Police 6. City and County Marshals 7. Bailiffs 8. GameWardens
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Four Primary Functions of Police


1. 2. 3. 4. Enforcing the law Providing services Criminal investigation Preventing crime

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Enforcing the Law


Many citizens, as well as many police officers see this as their primary function Police cannot enforce all laws Why not?

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Providing Services
To Serve and Protect The majority of calls that police answer are non-emergency calls for service How many of these types of calls can you identify?

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Criminal Investigation
Criminal investigation is one of the primary ways that police identify and apprehend criminals Complex investigations are conducted by well trained and specialized criminal investigators (detectives) Not every police department has specialized investigators Mid-sized departments may have investigators that are generalists that may investigate a shoplifting one day and a sexual assault the next Some smaller departments have to rely on other agencies (usually state agencies) to conduct investigations for them Introduction to the Administration of 26
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Preventing Crime
One of the most difficult and controversial tasks assigned to police departments Crime prevention is a proactive approach Crime prevention must be a joint effort between law enforcement and citizens within the community Identify some of the reasons why the police cannot prevent crime on their own?

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Patrol
Patrol is the backbone of police work It is also the most expensive budget item for a police department Patrol methods include: 1. Automobiles (the most common) 2. Foot patrol 3. Horse patrol 4. Bicycle patrol 5. Aircraft and helicopters 6. Boat patrol 7. Motorcycles Introduction to the Administration of
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The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment


Conducted in 1972/1973 The experiment attempted to confirm two widely accepted theories concerning the effectiveness of police patrol: 1. That visible police presence prevents crime by deterring potential offenders 2. That the publics fear of crime is diminished by police presence

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The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment


The experiment used three controlled levels of routine preventive patrol: 1. Reactive areas 2. Proactive areas 3. Control areas

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The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment


The results of the experiment disappointed those conducting the experiment as well as many police chiefs around the country The results found that there was no significant differences in the: Level of crime Citizens attitudes toward police services Citizens fear of crime Police response time Citizens satisfaction with police response time
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Community Policing
Definition: . . . is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime.

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Community Policing
Working relationship between the police and the community Emphasizes the idea that the public should play a more active role in crime control and prevention

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Community Policing
Four major elements of community policing: 1. Organize community-based crime prevention. 2. Direct and reorient patrol activities to emphasize nonemergency service to the community. 3. Increase police accountability to the local communities. 4. Decentralize the command structure of police departments to allow for more lower-level decision making.

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Problem Solving
Problem solving is the process of engaging in a proactive and systematic examination in order to identify problems and evaluate effective ways of dealing with them It encourages a proactive approach to crime

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SARA Model
SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment) This is a problem-solving model used by many police departments in the United States

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SARA Model
Scanning: Identifying and prioritizing problems. Problems can be a type of behavior, a place, a person(s), a special event or time, or any combination of these. The police, with input from the community, should identify and prioritize these concerns. Analysis: Researching what is known about the problem. Analysis is the heart of the problem-solving process. It is here that an understanding of the problem is developed. Response: Developing solutions to bring about lasting reductions in the number and extent of the problems. This is where the police and the community work together to find and implement solutions to the problem. Assessment: Evaluating the success of the responses. This requires follow-up by the police to determine if the response had the desired effect and was successful.
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Police Discretion
Discretion is the authority that police officers have to use their individual judgment concerning decisions that they must make on a daily basis Discretionary decisions are made by officers based upon their: Experience Training Professionalism Individual backgrounds

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Police Discretion
May be limited by departmental policies and by local and state laws Mandatory arrest laws Give some examples of when a police department would limit the discretionary decisions of an officer?

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Police Use of Force


Police officers are authorized to use that amount of force necessary to overcome resistance and accomplish an arrest Police use force on a regular basis Placing handcuffs on a suspect is a form of force

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Police Use of Force


Type of force used or threatened by police in 2005
Type of force used Percent of contacts with police in which force was used or threatened or threatened by police _______________________________________________________________ Total 100% Police actually used force Pushed or grabbed Kicked or hit Sprayed chemical/pepper spray Pointed gun Used other force Police threatened to use force 2 Shouted or cursed at by police Type of force used or threatened was not reported Estimated number 55.0% 43.4 8.6 3.4 15.2 10.0 7.5% 10.1%

7.4% 707,520

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Excessive Force
Excessive force is the application of an amount and/or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject Excessive force is one of the most visible and controversial issues facing police today Well publicized cases of excessive force tarnished the image of law enforcement as a whole

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Deadly Force
Deadly force is that force that could be reasonably expected to cause death or serious bodily harm 2009 409 suspects were justifiably killed by police in the line of duty

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Tennessee v. Garner
This 1985 Supreme Court case set forth the procedures that law enforcement must follow when using deadly force Prior to this case, many police departments followed what was called the fleeing felon doctrine The Supreme Court stated that deadly force can only be used: In the defense of the life of the officer or a of a third party To shoot a fleeing felon only if that felon poses an imminent danger of serious bodily harm or death to the officers or a third party
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