STRESS TYPE & CLASSIFICATION

 Stress

 Types of stress
 Classes of stress  Basis for establishing allowable stress  Code allowable stress

Type of stress 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Tensile Compressive Shear Bending Bearing Axial Discontinuity Membrane Principal

Type of stress 
10. Thermal 11. Tangential 12. Torsional 13. Load Induced 14. Strain Induced 15. Circumferential 16. Longitudinal 17. Radial 18. Normal

.

.

.

Membrane Stress   Outside of Pressure Vessel Design there is no membrane stress.  An example of membrane stress is the uniform stress across the thickness of a pressurised shell. .

Discontinuity stress   Additional stress produced where abrupt changes in geometry. materials and/or loading occur in an FRP laminate .

Principal Stress   Stresses in principal plane is called principal stress .

.

.

.

.

.

.

Thermal Stress  .

Tangential Stress   A stress which acts along a plane in the interior of a body .

 .

.

.

.

.

Can not cause structural failure due to restraints offered by the body to which the part is attached.Gross structural discontinuity. .Significant in fatigue condition.the additional stresses due to to stress intensification in highly localised areas. 1) Stress at the corner of a discontinuity.additive to part section.both sustained and self limiting loads. . .Thermal stress . . 2) Thermal stresses in a wall in the surface temperature. 3) Stress due to notch effect (Stress concentration) . . Peak .CLASSES OF STRESS Stress 1) 2) 3) Primary Unrelenting load General loading (Pm + Pb ) Local loads (PL + Pb ) Not self limiting Internal Pressure External Sustained External forces & moments 1) Secondary Relenting loads (Self limiting) .Local yielding and minor distortion can satisfy the conditions which caused the stress to occur.

Pm --> Primary Membrane:   Circumferential and Longitudinal stress due to pressure. .  Bending of horizontal vessels over the saddles due to Longitudinal Stress.  Axial compression due to weight.  Axial stress.  Membrane stress in the nozzle wall within the area of reinforcement due to pressure  external loads.  Membrane stress in the centre of the flat head.

 Bending stress in the ligament of closely spaced openings.Pb--> Primary Bending:   Bending stress in the centre of a flat head or crown of a dished head. .  Bending stress in a shallow conical head.

flange juncture.PL-->       PM + Membrane stress at local discontinuities. Nozzle .cylinder juncture. Head . Shell .shell juncture. Shell .shell juncture. Cone . .skirt juncture.  Head .stiffening ring juncture.

Secondary Stresses:        Self limiting. Loads caused by vibration. Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the conditions which caused the stress to occur. .    The non-uniform portion of the stress distribution in a thick walled vessel due to internal pressure. Thermal expansion (start up . Bending stress at a gross structural discontinuity.shut down) loads. Discontinuity stresses. Can not cause structural failure. Radial loads on nozzles produce secondary means stresses in the shell at the junction of the nozzle.

 Stress due to notch effect.  Stress at the corner of a discontinuity.Peak Stresses   Both sustained loads and self limiting loads.  Significant in fatigue calculations. .  Thermal stresses in a wall caused by a sudden change in the surface temperature.

5 Sm 3 Sm Pm + Pb + Q + F (Fatigue) < 2 Sa .5 Sm < 0.9 Sy 1.CATEGORIES OF STRESS Stress Classification/Category General primary membrane General primary bending Pm Pb Pm + Pb Pm + Pb + Q (Secondary) Allowable Stress < < < < Sm 1.

loops or offsets or provision shall be made to absorb thermal movements by utilising expansion. leakage at joints or detrimental distortion of connected equipment resulting from excessive thrusts and moments. swivel or ball joints. shall be provided by changes of direction in the piping through the use of bends.FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS Expansion and Flexibility: In addition to the design requirments for pressure. Piping systems subjected to thermal expansion or construction or to similar movements imposed by other sources shall be designed in accordance with requirements for the evaluation and analysis of flexibility and stresses specified herein:- Flexibility: to prevent pipe movements from causing failure from over stress of pipe material or anchors. weight and other loadings. - .

. The allowable stresses for the design conditions set by appropriate code. The pipe size and wall thickness of each pipe component. NEMA or the equipment manufacturers. 6. 7. 2. Metallurgical considerations. these criteria must be considered and satisfied. The type of material. 8.Parameters to be considered for flexibility analysis:1. The design pressure and temperature. The appropriate code that applies to the system. 5. 4. Limitations of forces and moments on equipment nozzles set by API. The piping geometry including movements of anchors and restraints. For any system. 3.

3 (L – U)2 l U D = L U Outside dia of pipe  = Resultant expansion in mm = Developed length of line axis between anchors (m) = Anchor distance (m).≤ 208. . D -------.Emprical formula for finding flexibility of the system having only two terminal points and pipe of uniform size.

weight and those produced by occasional loads (such as wind. P (D – t) Allowable internal Pressure stress = ----------2t Allowable sustained local stress AF Q SL = P x ----.PIPING DESIGN CRITERIA 1. -. .(2) 3.(1) 2. < Sa -. earthquake) may exceed the basic material allowable stress.+ ----Am Am Allowable occasional load stress: The sum of longitudinal stresses due to pressure.

Allowable test load stress: The maximum stress during pressure tests shall not exceed 90% of the yield at test temperature.4.6 0. Allowable stress – range for expansion stresses: SA = f (1.5 .9 0.7 0. Cycles 7000 and less 7000 to 14000 14000 to 22000 22000 to 45000 45000 to 100000 100000 and over f 1.0 0. 5.25 Sc + 0. Sh = Hot allowable stress.25 Sh) Sc = Cold allowable stress. f = Stress range reduction factor for cyclic condition.8 0.

loading rate) most materials can fail in a brittle or ductile manner or both . state of stress.  The failure of a material is usually classified into brittle failure (fracture) or ductile failure (yield)  Depending on the conditions (such as temperature.Theory of failure   Failure theory is the science of predicting the conditions under which solid materials fail under the action of external loads.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful