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# Position Control of High Performance Stepper Motor

Presented By: Aditya Chaudhary GG9562/12-EEIM-136 Instrumentation & Control M.Tech. III Sem.

Key Features

Key Features

Agenda
Introduction SMM-PWM Based Controller Neural Network Based Adaptive Controller

Introduction
Hybrid Stepper Motor is the combination of permanent magnet and variable-reluctance stepper motor.
Caused the reduction in weight and inertia of the rotor But increase in the dynamics

Traditional Open loop control system of the stepper motor cant be used because stepping may produce
Mechanical resonances, Vibrations, Acoustic Noise, Aging Reduction in control bandwidth

On comparing with other motors, hybrid stepper motor does not have a clear equivalent circuit for analysis, in fact it has many variations in the stator-rotor teeth configuration. Thus, a control system design for this is difficult. Therefore, an Adaptive Controller is selected. Otherwise, through DQ Transformation, a equivalent circuit is developed and then a controller is applied.

## SMM PWM Based Controller

This controller uses current feedback and micro-stepping, for controlling the Stepper Motor. A Smart Mixed Mode (SMM) is the combination of the two level and three level PWM techniques. For this type of controller, we have to generate a mathematical model.

## Stepper Motor Model

Hybrid stepping motor was originally designed as an ac two-phase synchronous motor. Neglecting the space harmonics, voltage equations on the rotating dq frame are:
(1)

(2)

## Stepper Motor Model

Instantaneous torque T can be expressed as the sum of three components:
1. 2. 3. the permanent-magnet torque Tm the reluctance torque Tr the detent (or cogging) torque Td.

The first two terms can be computed as the partial derivative of the co-energy Wc with respect to the rotor angle, i.e.,
(3)

(4)

## Stepper Motor Model

The reluctance torque term depends on the variation of reluctance between the two axes and can be zeroed by keeping id =0. The last torque term Td does not affect significantly the torque produced by the motor and can be neglected. Thus the torque is
(5)

Equation (5) shows that to obtain a constant torque, a constant iq current must be supplied. Referring to a stationary reference frame, we obtain the stator currents
(6)

Control Scheme

Stepping Operation

## (b) Half-step operation

Microstepping
In a traditional full-step operation, each phase is supplied separately. In a half-step operation, an additional rest position is introduced between two full steps by supplying both phases with equal currents. A technique to smoothen shaft revolution by reducing torque ripple is to create new intermediate rest positions, reducing the step size. This technique requires a dedicated supply waveform and is referred to as microstepping.

Microstepping
Keeping ( + ) on a circle, i.e. supplying the stator with sinusoidal currents (6), a constant torque in obtained. Microstepping frequency as requested by the regulator is: =
60.

where is the number of full steps per revolution and is the number of microsteps per full steps.

PWM Operation

DC/AC converter is the key element of the motor control PWM is generated by operating the switches of the full bridge with a suitable switch sequence. Two Modulation techniques are used: (a) Two level PWM and (b) Three level PWM

PWM Operation
Two Level PWM (fast current decay) Three Level PWM (slow current decay)

PWM Operation
In mixed mode operation, the two level PWM and three level PWM are mixed to obtain a SMM-PWM. In SMM-PWM, Toff period in changed according to the two level and three level PWM. This ensures the proper decay of the current, reducing the current ripple, according to the need of the operation. In fact, the MM-PWM is built by mimicking the two level modulation Ton period and changing the Toff period, mixing slow and fast decay according to the percentage of the slow decay ks. The MM-PWM will be characterized by stating its percentage of the slow decay ks; obviously, the percentage of the fast decay is the 100% complement of ks. For example, ks = 33% stands for a MM-PWM where the current decay is slow for 33% of Toff and fast for the remaining 67%.

SMM-PWM

Experimental Results
Peak-to-peak current ripple as a function of microstepping

Experimental Results
Average copper loss as a function of switching frequency

## Pros and Cons

Pros:
Reduction of the losses. Either of the optimal performance or minimum cost is chosen.

Cons:
Machine Parameters have to be known priorly.

## Neural Network Based Adaptive Control

ANN Controllers used widely used in system identification and non-linear control system because:
o Do not require mathematical models o Offers advantage of performance improvement through learning using parallel and distributed processing.

Dynamic Back-propagation learning technique is used for multilayer networks. This type of control is implemented using two individual controllers.
1. 2. NN Identifier (NNI) { 4:5:1 } NN Controller (NNC) {5:5:1 }

NNC Architecture
Five inputs: 1. Previous instants input 2. Present instants input 3. Previous two instants rotor angular speed 4. Previous instants rotor angular speed 5. Previous instants control signal The parameters of the NNC are adjusted on the error between the reference model output (), and the actual output of the system under control ( ). Control is approximated as: = ( 1 , 2 , , 1 , 1 )

NNI Architecture
Four Inputs 1. Actual control effort 2. Delayed control effort 3. Estimate of the rotor angular speed at the previous two instants 4. Previous rotor angular speed

Parameters are adjusted on the error between, the actual motor speed () and the output of the identification network (). Estimated speed is approximated as: = ( 1 , 2 , , 1 )

## Learning Algorithm: Dynamic Back Propagation

The DBP learning algorithm is used to train both the NNI and NNC. The algorithm is based on the principle of the minimization of a cost function of the error between the desired output and the actual output of each network. The minimization is achieved by varying the adjustable parameters of the NNI and NNC in the negative direction of the gradient of the cost function. The most important step in the employed algorithm is the computation of the partial derivatives of each of the outputs of the network with respect to each of its adjustable parameters.

## Learning Algorithm: DBP Steps

1. Chose the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes per layer( generally chosen on trial and error basis). 2. Assign weights and basis to every neuron and rearrange them in a vector matrix . (Referred as adjustable parameters). 3. Appropriately chose T (update window size), so that all the adjustable parameters can be changed and (learning rate). 4. Mapping of Inputs and Outputs is done by NNC and NNI. 5. An Error vector is found as:

This Error vector is the Cost function in the DBP algorithm. The Parameter is updated as:

## Learning Algorithm: DBP Steps

Where
Training is terminated when < . Number of partial derivate to be computed: 2 2 3 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 1 + 3 2 0 . And = .

## Overall Control Structure

Performance Results
NNI Variation

NNC Variation

Performance Results

## NNC under step input signal

Performance Results
NNC under external disturbance

## Pros and Cons

Pros:
The Controller does variate with the fixed position Any External Disturbance is easily compensated Model of the Motor Drive and Load has not to be known

Cons:
Training time is much more Huge number of Initial Values of the weights and bias has to be placed manually Number of neurons in the hidden layer is known by hit and trial bases

References
1. A. Rubaai, M. J. Castro-Sitiriche, M. Garuba, and L. Burge, III, Implementation of artificial neural network-based tracking controller for high performance stepper motor drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 218227, Feb. 2007. 2. Alberto Bellini, Carlo Concari, Giovanni Franceschini, and Andrea Toscani, Mixed-Mode PWM for High Performance Stepping Motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 3167-3177, Dec. 2007 3. Ahmed Rubaai, Raj Kotaru, Online Identification and Control of a DC Motor Using Learning Adaptation of Neural Networks, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 935-942, May/June 2000.

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