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Electric charge

Electric charge is a physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter elementary charge = - 1.60210-19 C o positive charged body has lost electrons o positive charge attracted by negative and repelled by positive charge o negative charged body has gained electrons onegative charge attracted by positive and repelled by negative charge
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Electric charge
Electrification by friction glass + resin rubbed together and then separated, will attract each other

glass

+++++

F F
-----

resin

Triboelectric series

+
nylon glass quartz PS resin PVC
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Electric Field
Q
field source

q +
test charge

F = qE

[E] = V/m

[D] = C/m2
0 = 1/(4910 9) F/m

E electric field strength F electric field force D = 0E electric induction (electric displacement)
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Voltage. Potential
The voltage between two points of a path is expressed as the line integral of the electric field.

+
dl A E

A dl E P

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Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

Electric polarization
When a dielectric is placed in an external electric field its molecules gain electric dipole moment and the dielectric is said to be polarized
Electric dipole moment +q electric dipole electric polarization effects on a material in an electric field -q

+ d

p p = qd

[p] = Cm
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Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

Electric polarization
Polarization density: P = dp/dV Polarization law: Pt = 0eE e electric susceptibility [P] = C/m2

Relation between D, E and P

D = 0E + P = 0E + 0eE = 0(1 + e)E 1 + e = r - relative permittivity D = E [D] = C/m2 D = 0 r E
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Electric capacitor
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by an electrical insulator (dielectric)
U

+q

+ + + + + + + + + +

r
- - - - - - - - - -

-q

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Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

Electric capacitors

C = 0rl/ln(R2/R1)
(r) C = 0r A/d C = 40r/ (1/R1-1/R2)

WC = (1/2)QU = (1/2)CU2 = (1/2)Q2/C

Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Electric current
q1 V1 K

+
K

q2 V2

V1 = V2

i = dq/dt
q1 V1

[i] = A

q2 V2

The electric current is defined to be the rate of which charges pass through a cross-sectional area of the conductor
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Current density
vdt

+
J

dA

+ + +

+ +
A

++ + + v + + +
q

I = JdA [J] = A/m2 J = qnvd

i n = number of charge carriers per unit of volume q = charge of each carrier vd = drift speed (speed of charge carriers)

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Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

Ohms law
In a material the current density J is linearly dependent on the external electric field E J = E

material conductivity
E = J material resistivity

[] = S/m

[] = m
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Ohms law
uAB = VA VB =
uAB J E

Edl = ElAB
B

A lAB

(J = i/A)

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Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

Ohms law
Conductor resistance : RAB = lAB/A R = l/A [R] =

u = Ri

Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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DC circuits
DC = Direct Current unidirectional flow of electric charges DC supplies E (EMF = electromotive force)

Resistors

R (resistance)
R E

Branch part of the electric circuit

without connections
I1 I2 I3

2

1 n Rk Ek m

circuit

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DC circuits. Kirchhoffs laws

Kirchhoffs current law The algebraic sum of all the currents into a node must be

equal to zero

(Ik) = 0

must be equal to the sum of the currents exiting the node

I1

(Iin) = (Iout)
I1 I2 I3 +I4 = 0 I1 + I4 = I2 + I3

I2 I3

I4

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DC circuits. Kirchhoffs laws

Kirchhoffs voltage law The algebraic sum of all the voltage drops U across a

closed loop must be equal to zero

(U) = 0
The algebraic sum of the EMF within the
closed loop must be equal to the algebraic sum of the voltage drops of all resistors within the same loop

(Ek) = (RkIk)
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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DC circuits. Kirchhoffs laws

Kirchhoffs voltage law
R1 E1 I2 R2

I1

R4
I4 I3

travel direction

E2

E3

R3

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DC circuits. Kirchhoffs laws

Application

Kirchhoffs current low: I1 + I4 = I6 I2 + I5 = I1 I3 + I6 = I2 Kirchhoffs voltage law: R1I1 + R5I5 R4I4 = E5 R2I2 + R3I3 R5I5 = -E5 R6I6 + R4I4 R3I3 = E6

R1 I5 I1 E5

R2 I2

I4
R5 R4

I3

R3 E6 I6

R6

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Joule Lenz law (Joule effect)

I U DC circuit I U R

P =RI2 P =UI P = U2/R [P] = W

The rate of energy loss (heat) generated by a constant current in any part of an electrical circuit is proportional to the resistance and to the square of the current
Universitatea Tehnica din Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Constructii de Masini

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Joule Lenz law (Joule effect)

I E U

P =UI U=E P = EI
U = 230 V P = 1.5 kW I=? R=? J=?

I U R

I U R
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