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Development Communication

Development Communication: Concept, Purpose & Limitations Development Communication and western bias

Rural development and communication

International Communication Policies

Development is a comprehensive economic,

social, cultural and political process that aims at

the constant improvement and well-being of the entire population on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in fair distribution of benefits resulting there from.

It is continuous and growth-oriented process

Process of movement from a state dissatisfaction to a state of satisfaction


The concept of development may refer to:
- Some progressive change resulting into creation of

awareness, motivation and participation of individuals;

- Modernization, social change and enhancement of living standards;

- Industrialization and economic growth; - Positive and desirable changes;

Origin of concept of Development

Associated with 3rd world countries since the end of 2nd World War Independence from colonial masters led to recognition of the fact that these colonies were not in a position to provide for the people of their state

These countries/former colonies were classified as underdeveloped or developing countries

Process of these countries becoming self sufficient termed as development was

Cold war divided the world into two power blocks, USR and USSR. They wanted to attract more nations to their side and thereby suggested formula for development

Concept of Development
1950s and 1960s
Development as Economic Growth - Rostow (capital accumulation, growth of labour force, technological progress) Modernization was equated to development Development as a top-down process Dominated by western theories and models of development

1970s and thereafter

Development as a process of Social Change

(development of human beings which is harmonious to the ecological and cultural environment in the light of local traditions)

Causes of Underdevelopment & Western Bias

Under developed societies lack n-ach or need for achievement. Traditional literature do not contain the drive to work (David Mc. Clleland) Lack of empathy (Putting oneself into other persons shoes). Inability to adjust with a developed and complex society. (Lerner) Problems of agrarian society (Everett Rogers Sub-Culture of Peasantry Dominance of religious values Elaborate social rituals and institutions Joint family structure, increased dependency

Western Bias (Pachimgami Pakhyopat)

Western models of development assumed that the main causes of underdevelopment lay within the underdeveloped nation rather than external to it such as need for achievement, lack of empathy, problems of agrarian society, dominance of religious values, social rituals, joint family structure etc. West wanted to establish their dominance by suggesting formulas for development keeping in mind their own market needs and foreign policy objectives.

Dominant Paradigm & Alternative Paradigm

Elements of the Dominant Paradigm Economic growth as measured by GNP Capital-intensive technology Centralized planning and development Emerging Alternatives to the Dominant Paradigm Equality in income distribution Appropriate technology Possible Factors Leading to the Alternative Paradigm Discouraging rates of economic growth Environmental pollution and perceived limits to growth Positive outcomes in countries that were self-reliant Dependency theory (Western countries dependence on developing countries for resources)

Self-reliance in planning and development

Underdevelopment is caused by internal factors

Underdevelopment is caused by internal and external factors

Alternate Paradigm (Bikalpa Drishtanta)

Equality of distribution of information, socio economic benefits etc Popular participation in self-development planning and execution, decentralization of activities Self-reliance and independence in development with an emphasis upon the potential of local resources Integration of traditional with modern systems

What is Development Communication?

It is a social process Development Communication is the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth and possible greater economic and social equality and larger fulfillment of human potential. (NORA QUEBRAL) They are organized efforts to use communication in order to promote development.

Role of Communication in Development

Communication is the key to development & social change Wilbur Schramm (1964) was the first to recognize that communication could play an important role in the national development of the third world countries

Communication is vital to inform, spread ideas and messages, create awareness about new technologies and developments Communication guides people and creates a forum
Sustained Communication fosters behaviour changes that in turn triggers development (BCC)

Concept of Development Communication

It emerged in the late 1950s amid hopes that mass media (radio and television) could be used in disadvantaged countries to bring dramatic changes. Mass media, especially Television was seen as Magic Multiplier of development. Diffusion of Innovation approach was seen as means to create knowledge of new practices and persuade target group to adopt innovations. ( ) Social Marketing was seen a tool of development (Use of marketing principles to "sell" ideas, attitudes and behaviors) The emphasis is now on participatory development communication. (Peoples participation and localized approach)

History of Devcom in India

Early efforts raced to rural radio broadcasts in the 1940s in different languages Right from inception, Doordarshan (15th Sep, 1959) aired programmes on agriculture (Krishi Darshan) School Television, UGCs Countrywide Classroom on DD In 1975, India used satellites on an experimental basis for telecasting television programmes (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) on education and development to 2400 villages in 6 states Community Radio has been successfully used in many parts of India to address area-specific issues, empower communities and promote development (Sangham Radio, Pastapur, AP / Namma Dhwani, Budikote, Karnataka etc)

A rural woman during the recording of a radio programme for community radio

Villagers watching a community television during SITE

Communication tools for Development

Interpersonal Communication Mass Communication (Radio, Television, Print, Films) Traditional Media (Puppetry, Street plays, theatres) Information Technology (Mobile, Computers)

Participatory modes of communication: Community Radio

Rural Development
Rural Development implies improvement of the quality of life of rural people It is a process to empower the poor, reduce exploitation and oppression, equitable sharing of resources, improved health, education etc.

Rural Development & Communication

Communication is the key to any development initiatives Medium of communication for rural development includes: Electronic media (TV, Radio, Community radio), Traditional media, human communication, Print modes such as cartoons, pamphlets and brochures, IT (Information Technology) interventions etc.

Persuasive, participatory communication has gained prominence to bring desirable social and behavioral changes

International Communication Scenario

Imbalance in flow of information Biased outlook & underreporting Inequitable communication resources

Dependency on western media

International Communication Policies

NWICO (New World Information & Communication Order) was formed by non-aligned countries to achieve equitable and balanced information and communication order

UNESCOs MacBride Commission (Many Voices One World) established there were imbalances in communication and information flow.
UNESCOs International Programme Development of Communication on the