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Public Switched Telephone Network (S-PSTN)

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S-PSTN
Copyright 2001 Global Wireless Education Consortium All rights reserved. This module, comprising presentation slides with notes, exercises, projects and Instructor Guide, may not be duplicated in any way without the express written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. The information contained herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial training materials or for-profit education programs, books, databases, or any kind of software without the written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. Making copies of this module, or any portion, for any purpose other than your own, is a violation of United States copyright laws.

Trademarked names appear throughout this module. All trademarked names have been used with the permission of their owners.

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S-PSTN
Partial support for this curriculum material was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement Program under grant DUE-9972380 and Advanced Technological Education Program under grant DUE-9950039. GWEC EDUCATION PARTNERS: This material is subject to the legal License Agreement signed by your institution. Please refer to this License Agreement for restrictions of use.
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Table of Contents
Overview Learning Objectives Network Overview Switching Systems Post-Divestiture Network Signaling Contributors 5 6 7 13 19 28 38

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Overview
Network setup Switching systems Post-Divestiture network Signaling SS7 CCS

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Learning Objectives
After completing this module you will be able to: Discuss the basic operations of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Define the telephony switching hierarchy Describe the signaling required to complete a typical telephone call through the PSTN Describe how the SS7 network is overlayed onto the PSTN

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Network Overview

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What Is A Network ?

Switching Office

Switching Office

CPE

CPE

Transmission Facilities

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Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)


Major Components of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN): Switching Offices Transmission facilities Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)

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Switching Offices
SWITCHING OFFICE
CONTROL

NETWORK

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Transmission Facilities

Switching
Line

Trunks

Switching Office
Line

Office
Special Service Circuit

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Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)


Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) is the term used to identify any piece of equipment supplied by the customer to interface with the PSTN. Examples include: Single Line Telephone Set Modems or Data Sets Private Branch Exchange (PBX)

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Switching Systems

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Traffic Networks
The Public Switched Telephone Network:
Pre-divestiture Post-divestiture

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Local Network Structure

Exchange Area 5

Exchange Area 1

Exchange Area 2
Wire Center B

Wire Center A

Exchange Area 4

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Exchange Area 3

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Typical Local Network

Tandem Office T

Wire Center C Tandem Trunk Groups (Final)

Wire Center A

Direct Trunk Groups

(High Usage)

Wire Center B

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Toll Network Structure Pre-Divestiture


Regional Center D Class 1 Regional Center C Class 2 Regional Center B Class 3 Toll Center A Class 4 Local Office (End Office) Class 5 FINAL Regional Center E HU6 HU5 HU4 HU3 HU1 Toll Center H Toll Connecting Local Tandem Office Local Office Sectional Center F Primary Center HU7 G

HU2

Telephone 1
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Telephone 2
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Toll Network Structure Pre-Divestiture


Regional Center D Class 1 FINAL Regional Center E HU6 HU5 HU4 HU3 HU1 Toll Center H Toll Connecting Local Office (End Office) Class 5 Local Tandem Office Local Office HU2 Primary Center HU7 G

Regional Center C Class 2


Regional Center B Class 3 Toll Center A Class 4

Sectional Center F

Telephone 1
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Telephone 2
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The PostDivestiture Network

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The Post-1984 Network


IEC1
IEC2 IEC3

LATA x
InterLATA Carriers

LATA y

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Typical LEC Network

Central Office
Switching Systems Distribution Facility/Local Loop

Tandem Office

IC POP

Interoffice Facilities/Trunks

Distribution Facility/Local Loop


Central Office

LEC
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IC
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LATA Access Services


Switched Access Special Access (Nonswitched)

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Switched Access Service


Feature Group A Feature Group B Feature Group C Feature Group D Equal Access End Office

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North American Numbering Plan

Numbering Plan Area N X X

Central Office N X X X

Station X X X

2-9 0-9 0-9

2-9 0-9 0-9

0-9 0-9 0-9 0-9

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Number Plan Area (NPA)


These special purposes codes include:
NXX Reserved Codes:
600 Used in Canada for TWX (teletype service) 700 Assigned to ICs 800, 888, 877, and 866 Service (INWATS) 900 Service (DIAL-IT Service)

N11 Reserved Codes:


311 Non-Emergency Police and Fire 411 Local Directory Assistance 611 Repair Service* 811 Business Office* 911 Emergency Number

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Number Plan Area (NPA)


Interchangeable area (or NPA) codes are NPA codes of the format NXX.

By changing from the former N-0/1-X format to the NXX format, the maximum number of assignable NPA codes increased by 640 codes as shown:
Old Format N 0/1 X 8 x 2 x 10 = 160 N X X 8 x 10 x 10 = 800 160-8* = 152 *Excluding codes of N11 format 800-8* = 792* *Excluding codes of N11 format

New format

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International Numbering
If you have made international calls, you know that the familiar NANP is a subset of the ITU international plan. Until recently, international numbers were limited to 12 digits.

1, 2 or 3 digits

Varies by location

Country Codes Trunk Code Local Code Subscriber Number

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Signaling

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Signaling
Signaling is the generation, transmission, and reception of information needed to direct and control the setup and disconnect of a call.

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Signaling
Originating CPE Originating Switching Office Terminating Switching Office Terminating CPE

1 2

Idle Off-hook Dial Tone Dialed Digits Off-hook Off-hook (wink) On-hook (wink) Dialed Digits Audible Ring Ringing

Answer
Disconnect

Off-hook

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Signaling
Originating CPE Originating Switching Office Terminating Switching Office Terminating CPE

1 2

Idle Off-hook Dial Tone Dialed Digits

3 5
Off-hook Off-hook (wink) On-hook (wink)

4 6
6
Dialed Digits Audible Ring Ringing

Answer
Disconnect

Off-hook

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Signaling
Originating CPE Originating Switching Office Terminating Switching Office Terminating CPE

1 2

Idle Off-hook Dial Tone Dialed Digits

3 5
Off-hook Off-hook (wink) On-hook (wink)

4 6
6 7
Dialed Digits Audible Ring Ringing

Answer
Disconnect

Off-hook

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Signaling
Originating CPE Originating Switching Office Terminating Switching Office Terminating CPE

1 2

Idle Off-hook Dial Tone Dialed Digits

3 5
Off-hook Off-hook (wink) On-hook (wink)

4 6
6 7
Dialed Digits Audible Ring Ringing

8 9 10
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Answer

Off-hook

10

Disconnect

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Common Channel Signaling (CCS)


Common Channel Signaling (CCS) is a signaling method that uses a separate dedicated channel to send and receive signaling information for a group of trunks or facilities by means of labeled messages.

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Signaling System 7 (SS7) LINKS


CO CO A F CO A

STP

STP

C B
STP

B D
STP

C A SCP
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A SCP
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SS7
Switching Office A STP Customer A IAM ACM ANM REL RLC IAM ACM ANM REL RLC Customer B Switching Office B

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Network Administration, Maintenance and Services


Network Management Traffic Measurements Billing Maintenance Customer Services

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Industry Contributors
The following organizations provided materials and resource support for this module: AT&T Wireless (http://www.attwireless.com) Lucent Technologies (http://www.lucent.com) Motorola (http://www.motorola.com) RF Globalnet (http://www.rfglobablnet.com) Telcordia Technologies, Inc. (http://www.telcordia.com)

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Individual Contributors
The following individuals and their organization or institution provided materials, resources, and development input for this module: Dr. Philip DiPiazza
Florida Institute of Technology http://www.fit.edu/

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