# Assignment Technique

Dr. T. T. Kachwala

in terms of time taken. . The algorithm works in varied situations wherein pairings are sought to be made.  The objective of an assignment problem is to determine the optimal assignment of given tasks to a set of workers that they can perform with varying efficiency. if there are n tasks to perform and an equal number of persons who can do them.Slide 2 Assignment Technique Introduction  An assignment problem is a special class of linear programming problem. the algorithm seeks to assign the jobs to persons in such a manner that each person gets one job and the total time in which all jobs can be done is the minimum. in varying times which are known.  Thus. amount of sales and so on. cost.

2. 3. 4.Slide 3 Assignment Technique Introduction (continued)  Assignment problems can be solved by : 1. Drafting and solving the problem as a transportation problem. . Completely enumerating all possibilities and choosing the best one. Drafting and solving the problem as a linear (integer) programming problem. Hungarian assignment method (HAM).

The estimates given by each of them on all the contracts in thousands of rupees are given below: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contractor Quotation for project (Rs. .Slide 4 Assignment Technique Objective Function: Optimum Assignment (or Allocation) of Jobs to Facilities Example : Six contractors submitted quotation for six projects. It was decided that one contractor should be given one project as otherwise it was feared that the time for completion & quality of workmanship will be affected. in thousands)   I II III IV V VI ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A 41 72 39 52 25 51 B 22 29 49 65 81 50 C 27 39 60 51 32 32 D 45 50 48 52 37 43 E 29 40 39 26 30 33 F 82 40 40 60 51 30 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Determine the optimum allocation of projects to the contractors and the corresponding total cost.

Slide 5 Assignment Technique Hungarian solution (Mathematician Konig from Country Hungarian)  In the given example. 6 projects have to be assigned to 6 contractors. we can apply Hungarian solution which will directly give the optimum allocation & the corresponding minimum total cost . There are 6! (6*5*4*3*2*1 = 720) possible ways to perform this allocation  In the complete enumeration study. one has to calculate the total cost for each of the 720 solutions & then select the allocation with the minimum total cost  Alternately.

To illustrate. if there are seven workers and five jobs. then two dummy jobs would be introduced.  The cost elements for the dummy workers / jobs would be taken to be M (high positive value). by introducing the necessary number of dummy jobs or workers (rows / columns). . not be given any job. the problem is unbalanced. it is called balanced problem. as a first step. The workers getting dummy jobs would. as required.Slide 6 Assignment Technique Unbalanced Problems:  If an assignment problem has equal number of jobs and workers. while if the two do not match.  An unbalanced problem is balanced. in fact.

 A maximisation type of problem is first converted to an equivalent minimisation problem by subtracting each value of the given matrix from a constant value. The resulting matrix is termed as Opportunity Loss Matrix and is then solved as any minimisation problem. an assignment problem calls for assigning people to different areas where they can give the maximum benefit. sales expected from different salesmen in various sales zones may be given.Slide 7 Assignment Technique Maximisation Assignment Problems:  Sometimes. . which is usually taken to be the largest of the given values. For example. it is first balanced by adding dummy worker(s) / job(s) with zero elements. The problem may be to assign each one of them in such a manner that the total sales may be maximised.  If a maximisation problem is unbalanced.

then such an assignment is called prohibited assignment.  “M” which is a very large value. . The problem is then solved as usual. replaces the cost element for each prohibited assignment. with no changes in them in row as well as column reductions. The prohibited assignments will continue to be shown by “M”.Slide 8 Assignment Technique Prohibited Assignments:  If a worker cannot perform a particular job or he is not been assigned a particular job.

the values of a dummy row / column are taken as '0„ (zero). {A balanced AM is that matrix where number of rows = number of columns }. no further adjustment is required. However if it is a profit matrix. However. If it is a cost matrix. if it is a cost matrix. the value of the cells of a dummy row / columns are taken as „M‟ {'M' is a very high positive value}. However. if it is a Profit matrix. no adjustment is required. If AM is balanced. Further.Slide 9 Assignment Technique  Working Rules and Guidelines (Hungarian Solution)  Step 1: Check if Assignment matrix (AM) is balanced. then convert it into an equivalent cost matrix. then add appropriately a dummy row / column to balance the matrix. by using the following mathematical relation: .  Step 2: Check if AM is a cost matrix. if AM is unbalanced.

 „Pij‟ is the corresponding profit value  P = (Pijs) max  Steps 3: Simplify the matrix {cost balanced matrix} by performing Row Minima and Column Minima operations {The sequence of Performing Row Minima & Column Minima operations is arbitrary} .Pij  Where 'Cij' is the cost value of a cell corresponding to the ith row / jth column.Slide 10 Assignment Technique  Working Rules and Guidelines (Hungarian Solution Continued)  Cij = P .

we conclude that it is an optimum solution.  However. Continue this procedure of “” adjustment and testing for optimality. we modify the solution through a procedure of “” adjustment. .Slide 11 Assignment Technique  Working Rules and Guidelines (Hungarian Solution Continued)  Step 4:  Test the simplified solution for optimality (Draw minimum number of lines to cover the zeros). If the simplified solution passes the optimality test. if it fails the optimality test then we conclude that it is not an optimum solution. till we reach the optimum solution. In such a case.   Test the modified solution for optimality.

Subtract this minimum value from all the cells of that row.   Additional Notes:  Row Minima operation: Proceed row wise. . Continue this procedure for all the rows of the matrix. Identify for each row the minimum value.Slide 12 Assignment Technique  Working Rules and Guidelines (Hungarian Solution Continued)  Step 5: Perform allocation of jobs to facilities Step 6: Calculate total cost / total profit with reference to the optimum allocation using data given in the original (source) matrix.

Identify for each column the minimum value. Continue this procedure for all the column of the matrix. we perform column minima first. .  The sequence of performing Row Minima & Column Minima operation is arbitrary. Subtract this minimum value from all the cells of that column. If adjustment is in the form of a dummy row.g. the sequence will depend on the nature of the adjustment e. from the point of view of convenience of calculations.Slide 13 Assignment Technique  Additional Notes: (Hungarian Solution Continued)  Column Minima operation: Proceed column wise. However for an unbalanced AM. we perform row minima first & like wise if adjustment is in the form of a dummy column.

Continue this procedure. Starting from this column identify square bracket. Enclose this zero in a square bracket. till all the row with a single zero is identified. Identify a row with a single zero.  Identify the row without a square bracket and without unmarked zeros. cancel the remaining zeros with a cross(x) corresponding to this column. Continue this procedure till all the appropriate rows & columns have been indicated by a  . If in a row there is more than one zero. Corresponding to this row put 3. Corresponding to this column Put 2 . identify crossed zeros. Starting from this row. leave the zeroes unmarked. Put 1 for that row.Slide 14 Assignment Technique  Testing the solution for optimality:  Proceed row wise.

 If the number of lines drawn = number of Rows /  Column.adjustment. . However if number of lines drawn Number of Rows / Column it means we have not reached an optimum solution. Count the number of lines drawn. it means we have reached the optimum solution.Slide 15 Assignment Technique  Testing the solution for optimality: (Continued)  Draw lines across the row without the mark and line across the column with the  mark. modify the solution through a procedure of  . In such cases.

remain unchanged. .   Subtract the value of  from all the uncovered cells of the matrix Add the value of  to all the cells at the intersection of the lines drawn  The remaining cells.Slide 16 Assignment Technique  Working Rules and Guidelines (Hungarian Solution continued)  Modification of solution (  .adjustment ):  Select the value of  corresponding to the minimum value of an uncovered cell.  Allocation of Jobs to Facilities:  Zeros in the square bracket are guides for allocation. It signifies the least cost allocation for that row. which are covered but which are not at the intersection of the lines drawn.

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