Biomechanics I

1

Axial vs. Appendicular
 Axial

skeleton refers to the body of

the animal
 Appendicular

refers to the limbs

Biomechanics I

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Biomechanics I

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Introduction
Axial skeleton
 

Forms the long axis of the body 80 bones in three major regions  skull  vertebral column  bony thorax
• • Ribs Sternum

Appendicular

Bones of upper & lower extremities and girdles 126 bones in three major regions

Girdles

• Shoulder girdle • Pelvic girdle

 

upper extremity lower extremity
4

Biomechanics I

Classification of Bones

Biomechanics I

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Types of bones
 short  flat

bones: approximately cubical; include the carpals and tarsals bones: protect organs & provide surfaces for muscle attachments; include the scapulae, sternum, ribs, patellae, some bones of the skull
Biomechanics I 6

Types of bones
 irregular

bones: have different shapes to serve different functions; include vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, maxilla bones: form the framework of the appendicular skeleton; include humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula
Biomechanics I 7

 long

Joints

Classify by function

Synarthroses
• Joints with little or no movement

Amphiarthroses
• Slightly moveable joints Diarthroses / Synovial joint • Freely moveable joints
Biomechanics I 8

Biomechanics I

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Joint Architecture
 diarthroses

or synovial: (freely movable) characterized by:  articular cartilage - a protective layer of dense white connective tissue covering the articulating bone surfaces  articular capsule - a double-layered membrane that surrounds the joint
Biomechanics I 10

Joint Architecture
 diarthroses

or synovial: (freely movable) characterized by:  synovial fluid - a clear, slightly yellow liquid that provides lubrication inside the articular capsule  associated bursae - small capsules filled with synovial fluid that cushion the structures they separate
Biomechanics I 11

Functions of articular cartilage
 distributing     

loads over joint surfaces

improving the fit of articulations limiting slip between articulating bones protecting the joint periphery lubricating the joint absorbing shock at the joint
Biomechanics I 12

Types of Synovial Joints
Plane joints

Articular surfaces are flat and allow short slipping or gliding movements Intercarpal and intertarsal joints
Biomechanics I 13

Types of Synovial Joints
Hinge joints

Movement resembles a door hinge Elbow joint – ulna and humerus; Interphalangeal joints
Biomechanics I 14

Types of Synovial Joints
Pivot joints

Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a ring formed by another bone or by ligaments of that bone. Proximal radioulnar joint Atlas-axial joint
Biomechanics I 15

Types of Synovial Joints
Condyloid joints

 

Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression on another. Radiocarpal joints Metacarpophalang eal joints
Biomechanics I 16

Types of Synovial Joints
Saddle joints

Each articular surface has convex and concave areas Each articular surface is saddleshaped. Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs
Biomechanics I 17

Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-Socket joints

Spherical or semispherical head of one bone articulates with the cuplike socket of another. Allow for much freedom of motion. Shoulder and hip joints
Biomechanics I 18

Joint Stability
 ability

of a joint to resist abnormal displacement of the articulating bones increase joint stability

 factors

a closely reciprocating match of the articulating bone surfaces a strong array of ligaments and muscle tendons crossing the joint
Biomechanics I 19

Factors increase joint stability
 articulating
 

bone surfaces

wide contact area - high stability different among joints and individuals change in joint angle - change in contact area - change in stability
Biomechanics I 20

Factors increase joint stability
 Connective

tissues crossing the joint

weak and lax connective tissues low stability strengthening of tissues - increase in stability muscle activity and fatigue decrease in stability
Biomechanics I 21

Joint Flexibility
a

description of the relative ranges of motion allowed at a joint in different directions of motion (ROM) - the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction
Biomechanics I 22

 range

Factors influence joint flexibility
 Shapes

of articulating bone surfaces  Intervening muscle or fatty tissue  Laxity  Extensibility of collagenous tissue and muscles  Fluid contents in cartilagenous disc  Temperature of collageneous tissues  Stretching program
Biomechanics I 23

Types of muscle

Biomechanics I

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Skeletal muscle
 Characteristics

of skeletal muscle;

Extensibility - ability to be stretched or to increase in length
• Viscoelasticity - having the ability to stretch or shorten over time
Biomechanics I 25

Skeletal muscle
 Characteristics

of skeletal muscle;  Contractility - ability to contract (develop tension)

Excitability (Irritability) - ability to respond to a stimulus Elasticity - ability to recoil to normal length following a stretch
Biomechanics I 26

Elastic components
 Parallel

elastic component (PEC)  passive elastic property of muscle derived from muscle membranes (epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, sarcolemma)  Series elastic component (SEC)  passive elastic property of muscle derived from the tendons (primarily responsible for elasticity)
Biomechanics I 27

Elastic components
 Contractile

component (CC)  actual part of muscle that contracts (actin and myosin)

Biomechanics I

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Motor unit
 single

motor neuron and all fibers it the functional unit of the

innervates
 considered

neuromuscular system

Biomechanics I

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Biomechanics I

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Basic fiber arrangement
 parallel

fiber arrangement: fibers are roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the muscle fan-shaped fiber arrangement: short fibers attach to one or more tendons within the muscle
Biomechanics I 31

 Convergence:  pennate

Arrangements of Muscle Fibers

Biomechanics I

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Types of muscle contraction
 isometric

contraction: muscle length does not change decreases increases contraction: muscle length

 concentric  eccentric

contraction: muscle length

Biomechanics I

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Skeletal Muscle Function
 agonist:

acts to cause a movement acts to slow or stop a

 antagonist:

movement

 stabilizer:

acts to stabilize a body part against some other force acts to eliminate an unwanted action produced by an agonist
Biomechanics I 34

 neutralizer:

Muscle’s length-tension relationship
 Tension

present in a stretched muscle is

the sum of the active tension provided by the muscle fibers and the passive tension provided by the tendons and membranes

Biomechanics I

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Total Tension Active Tension

Tension

Passive Tension

50 100 150 Length (% of resting length)

Biomechanics I

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Muscle’s force-velocity relationship

Biomechanics I

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