Data, Information and Knowledge:
• Data: Flow of captured events or transactions • Information: Data organized into categories of understanding • Knowledge: Concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating, and using information. Can be tacit (undocumented) or explicit (documented)

Organizational Learning Organizational learning: Adjusting business processes and patterns of decision making to reflect knowledge gained through information and experience gathered .

and organizing enterprise-specific knowledge assets for business functions and decision making. processing.Knowledge Management “The system and managerial approach to collecting.” .

capture. .What is knowledge management system?? • A management information system serves the functions of planning. storage. controlling. and decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports. • Knowledge management systems are systems that support the creation. • A decision-support system combines data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semi structured and unstructured decisions. and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge.

communities of practice.The Knowledge Management Value Chain • Knowledge acquisition • Knowledge storage • Knowledge dissemination • Knowledge application • Building organizational and management capital: collaboration. and office environments .


Tools for Knowledge Management 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Data base management tools Data warehousing. Data mart and Data mining tools Process modeling and Management tools Work flow management tools Search engine tools Document management tool Web based tools .

Knowledge Management System Architecture Back bone layer Data storage layer Information storage layer • Communication service • Storage service • Analysis service Knowledge creation/Information Analysis layer Distribution application service layer Transport Layer Security layer User interface layer • Transport Service • Presentation Service .

Driving forces behind KM External forces• Globalization of business • Demanding customers • Innovative competitors • Resourceful vendors .

Driving forces behind KM Internal Forces• Bottlenecks in effectiveness • Technological capabilities • Understanding of human cognitive functions .

• Build knowledge Assets-IC .Key aspects of Knowledge management • Accelerating Knowledge creation and application. • Converting tacit into Knowledge.

It should be with one or two personnel called as confidential and should be stored in an inaccessible place. once declared as knowledge. KM require substantial investment in hardware and software. process. It is a secret formula. persists forever. Knowledge has to be secret and can not be shared.Misconceptions about KM KM is an additional function and a high overhead. . Information set.

processed for specific goal. KM leads to more additional work. Knowledge is an analytical information. Knowledge once created.Misconceptions about KM People do not like to share knowledge. . more so the knowledge which gives them power in organization. its use is automatic straight with assured benefits.

3. . Characteristics: 1. Contain stored knowledge base.Knowledge based Expert System (KBES) Knowledge based expert system is an approach towards solving problem in different situations on the basis of stored knowledge database through reasoning process by inference mechanism. Intelligent information processing systems. Solve problems like humans. 2.

Inference Mechanism is a tool to interpret the knowledge available and to perform logical action in given situation.Basic independent components of KBES: User Control Mechanism e Base Knowledge Base Inference Mechanism 1. . 2. Knowledge base consisting of rules. 3. facts. formulas. User control mechanism control entire processing mechanism by using Knowledge base and guiding the Inference process. experience etc.

Method of Knowledge Based Expert system 1. Rules . Semantic Network 2. Frames 3.

• A network of notes and arcs connecting the notes.Semantic network • Knowledge is represented on the principle of predicate functions and the symbolic data structure which have meaning built into it are semantic. .


• It consists of the slots representing a part of the knowledge.Frames • To put the related knowledge in one area in an organized data structure of a knowledge. process and rules . • Each slot form of data has a value and expressed in the form of data information.

Frame -: Engine over heating Slot :Symptom value Slot: Inspection Value Slot :Treatment value • Temperature more than 80 degree • Water boiling • Speed retardation • Check water level • Check oil engine • Check carburetor • • • • Stop engine and drain water Start engine and pour cold water Increase oil level Adjust carburetor .

Then the item is excisable . If an item is made of tungsten carbide. • A rules is a conditional statement of an action that supposed to take place.Rules • Method of representing the knowledge is rule based.that is “If-Then” Eg. under certain condition .

and difficult to measure. dynamic. but without it no organization can survive. • Tacit: or unarticulated knowledge is more personal. . is difficult to communicate or share with others. experiential. • Explicit: explicit knowledge can easily be written down and codified. and is generally in the heads of individuals and teams.Approaches to KM Knowledge is intangible. context specific. and hard to formalize.

distribution sharing and security. based on different principles of structuring posing in storing. distributed. People In the organization • Resistance to change • Lack of motivation to learn • Turnover of people • Resistance to share knowledge Organization structure • Complex. . The barriers however loose the strength when competitive processes force organization to come out to these barriers.Barriers at four different locations KMS become successful in the organization when developers and users recognize and appreciate the barriers in the system implementation.

classifying and storing of knowledge .Contd… Management of the organization • Ego problem • Loss of power of possession • Fear of loosing to competition Knowledge itself • Decision on specific knowledge to declare it as a general knowledge • Unanimity in coding.

and viewing them in particular manner.MIS and KM • Knowledge is a result of putting different information sets together and analyzing them. KMS on processing these information sets. first will give and explicit knowledge. application processing systems will give different information sets. Information has a surprise value while knowledge provides a vision to solve the problem or understand the upcoming scenario. . transaction processing. • Data processing. Further application of the explicit knowledge over a period to solve the problem creates a tacit knowledge.

• The traditional business model „make and sale‟ changed to „sense and respond‟ as customer become more knowledgeable. • Modern MIS not only should provide information but also support management by providing knowledge necessary at all levels for critical decisions. A knowledge generating KMS is now a part of MIS suite. . an ability to forecast the problem expectations. for sense and respond model only information is not adequate what is required is a knowledge.Contd…. Softlab Enabling Tools • Imagination • Excalibur Technologies • Imaging Solutions • Grapevine Technologies • Intraspect Software • Milagro: The Power of Imagination .KM Software Tools • • • • • • • • Globalserve Knowcorp Hyperknowledge MicroStrategy The Molloy Group KnowledgeX Inc.

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