# Coffered slab

To design a suitable system : - Understand deflection pattern of the grids . - Understand deflections at junctions . - Compute load distribution . • Maximum bending moments develop at the center of the span . • Maximum torsional moments are generated at the corner of the grid . • Maximum shear force develops at the midpoint of longer side supports . • For 6×6 m square floor plan, 5 ribs of 140 mm depth (overall depth 205 mm) is found to be structurally most efficient for 3 kN/m2 live load intensity. • For square floor plan of 8 × 8 m, the most efficient structural system is 9 ribs of 240 mm depth for a live load intensity of 3 kN/m2

This system consists of beams at regular intervals in perpendicular direction .  The beams are monolithic with a topping slab  Each rib acts as a T-beam  Pre-cast grid units of M-25 (1:1:2) can be placed as shuttering units and over a thin slab can be cast in-situ.  Shapes of grid : - Square grids - Rectangular grids - Diagonal grids ( beams inclined at 45 degrees ) - Circular grids ( different circles of different radii are tied by straight members

Spacing of ribs Width of ribs Depth of ribs Thickness of slab Reinforcement Span range

2-3M c/c 200-250mm Span/20 to span/25 65-10mm 8mm dia @200mm c/c 10-30M

*consider shorter span for depth

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Applications : Coffered system is quite suitable for medium size floors. Coffered slabs provide a lighter and stiffer slab than an equivalent flat slab, reducing the extend of foundations. They provide a very good form where slab vibration is an issue, such as laboratories and hospitals. This system reduces self weight of the a structure and a column less space is achieved of longer spans .  NBCC house at Bhikaji Cama Place
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Demerits : Coffers need to be placed accurately and this is time consuming . The formwork is expensive . Specialized and extensive propping is required . Soffits in this system are not flat which could b a disadvantage when fixing electrical units and services . Effective in sagging but requires slab in area of hogging . The slab becomes very thich , hence an overall increase in building height leading to more material usage and increased cost .

Lab block – ICGEB JNU campus , New Delhi  Hero honda factory Gurgaon  Parliament secreteriat extension building at New Delhi

Plan view of the building of the gross area 78 × 53 m Load bearing structure consists of reinforced concrete double ribbed slabs of the total thickness 0.65 × 1.7 × 0.7 m located within span distances 12 × 12 m .    Load bearing structure of a recently built DEPARTMENT STORE IN PRAGUE consists of a flat (double ribbed) reinforced concrete slabs supported directly on columns located within span distances 12 x 12 m. Detailed analysis has shown that serviceability failure of the second storey was primarily caused by lack of consideration in design of deflection due permanent load and shrinkage .65 m (at the edge columns) and 3.0 kN/m2 and temporary part 4.0 kN/m2 After few years in service serious performance insufficiencies of cladding.35 m (at the interior )   Design loads of the slab above the first floor considered in the original analysis consist of permanent part 7. interior partitions.35 × 3. Slabs above the first and second storey cantilever out by 3 m beyond the edge columns .5 × 0.45 m supported directly on columns of the cross section 0. Due to public perception of the observed faults the second storey was closed and the whole building has been reconstructed.5 m or 0. The slabs are provided by hidden heads of the plan view dimensions 1. and other secondary elements had been observed.

Flat Slabs .

 Advantages Faster construction-Flat plate design will facilitate the use of big table formwork to increase productivity Reduced services and cladding costs-Flat slab construction places no restrictions on the positioning of horizontal services and partitions and canminimize floor-to-floor heights when there is no requirement for a deep false ceiling.saves 10% in vertical members. approx. For spans over 9 m post-tensioning should be considered.  Span-For spans from 5 to 9 m.Flat slabs are slabs that are supported directly on columns without any beams. They are highly versatile elements widely used in construction.  . reduce foundation load. thin flat slabs are the preferred solution for theconstruction of in-situ concrete frame buildings where a square or near-square grid is used. providing minimum depth. Flexibility in room layout: Allows Architect to introduce partition walls any anywhere required. Saving in building height: Lower storey height will reduce building weight due to lower partitions and cladding to façade. allows owner to change the sizeof room layout. fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. allows choice of omitting false ceiling and finish soffit of slab with skimcoating.

shear studs or stirrup cages may be embedded in the slab to enhance shear capacity at the edges of walls and columns     MULTIPLE FUNCTION PERIMETER BEAMS •adds lateral rigidity •reduce slab deflection .5 m3per square metre  CRACK CONTROL It is advisable to perform crack width calculations based on spacing of reinforcement as detailed and the moment envelope obtained from structural analysis good detailing of reinforcement will –restrict the crack width to within acceptable tolerances as specified in the codes and –reduce future maintenance cost of the building  FLOOR OPENINGS No opening should encroach upon a column head or drop Sufficient reinforcement must be provided to take care of stress Concentration  PUNCHING SHEAR always a critical consideration in flat plate design around the columns instead of using thicker section.4 to 0. shear reinforcement in the form of shear heads.Design considerations WALL AND COLUMN POSITION: Locate position of wall to maximise the structural stiffness for lateral loads Facilitates the rigidity to be located to the centre of building  OPTIMISATION OF STRUCTURAL LAYOUT PLAN the sizes of vertical and structural structural members can be optimised to keep the volume of concrete for the entire superstructure inclusive of walls and lift cores to be in the region of 0.

Applications  Parking lots  Bridges  High rise buildings Trump International Condo/Hotel Tower. Las Vegas Aqua building in Chicago .

Vierendeel Girders .

A girder is commonly used many times in the building of bridges.•Girder is the term used to denote the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams . the top boom being within the upper floor zone and the lower floor zone incorporating the bottom boom. •Elements in Vierendeel trusses are subjected to bending. •The Vierendeel truss/girder is characterized by having only vertical members between the top and bottom chords and is a statically indeterminate structure. Connections : . axial force and shear .Girders often have an I-shape cross section for strength. unlike conventional trusses with diagonal web members where the members are primarily designed for axial loads. but may also have a box shape. and planes. •Because deep trusses are particularly efficient for long spans they are sometimes designed to be a full storeyheight deep. Z shape or other forms.

•Because of its floor-to-floor structural depth one Vierendeel truss can carry two floors.thus reducing the number of perimeter beams . which would leave some areas obstructed by the diagonal braces.Advantages : •The utility of this type of structure in buildings is that a large amount of the exterior envelope remains unobstructed and can be used for fenestration and door openings. This is preferable to a braced-frame system.

triangular shape of truss is normally used because the shape cannot be changed without altering the length of its members.The Vierendeel girder design is sometimes adopted in the design of footbridges. By applying loads only to the joints of trusses. In traditional truss design. Disadvantages : •It suffers from the drawback that the distribution of stresses is more complicated than normal truss structures •Limited usage due to higher costs compared to a triangulated truss. the members of truss are only subjected to a uniform tensile or compressive stress across their cross sections because their lines of action pass through a common hinged joint. . The use of this girder enables the footbridge to span larger distances and present an attractive outlook.

YALE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY.CONNECTICUT .

Portal Frames .

THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS FORM OF DESIGN IS TO REDUCE BENDING MOMENT IN THE BEAM. MATERIALS • Wood eg glulam • Steel reinforced precast concrete • steel PORTAL FRAMES ARE DESIGNED FOR THE FOLLOWING LOADS: • roof load • wind load WHILE DESIGNING. WHICH CAN BE OVERCOME BY THE INTRODUCTION OF A PIN/HINGE JOINT. WHICH ALLOWS THE FRAME TO ACT AS ONE STRUCTURAL UNIT. THE TRANSFER OF STRESSES FROM THE BEAM TO THE COLUMN RESULTS IN ROTATIONAL MOVEMENT AT THE FOUNDATION.• • • • • • PORTAL FRAMES CAN BE DEFINED AS TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIGID FRAMES THAT HAVE THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A RIGID JOINT BETWEEN COLUMN AND BEAM. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN FOR PROPER • Joints • Foundation • Bracing .

storage. • It is also resistant to expansion and contraction due to changes in the weather. which helps ensure that the materials used to create the rest of the building will not crack or buckle Disadvantages • Skilled labour required • Metal needs to be galvanised before erection.• • • • • • • Usually the span of the structure is 20 to 30 m with column spacing of 6-12 m The maximum span of the structure is 80m with column spacing of 24m An clear height (from the top of the floor to the underside of the haunch) between 5 and 12 m A roof pitch between 5° and 10° (6° is commonly adopted) A stiffness ratio between the column and rafter section of approximately 1. resulting in a building frame that will not warp or crack. therefore they are often used for industrial.5 Advantages • They are very efficient for enclosing large volumes. retail and commercial applications as well as for agricultural purposes. increasing the cost . • They can be erected quickly • steel has the highest strength to weight ratio.

Deflection under horizontal load Components of a portal frame Apex connection Eaves connection Deflection under vertical loads .

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Pitched roof symmetric portal fram Lancashire Waste Development UK Cellular beam portal frame Hayes garden centre UK .

Portal frames at Chattarpur metro station .

Lattice Girder .

which is one of the main support elements in a bridge design. Lattice = an arrangement of objects in a regular periodic pattern in 2 or 3 dimensions. lattice girders are also widely used in mining tunnels for roof support during excavations and can be erected quickly. All load-bearing elements are produced according to the particular demands in tunneling: High strength Great deformability Well suited for welding Steel grade: Reinforcing or construction steel • Lattice girder specifications Upper longitudinal bar diameter variable = Ø8-Ø14 mm Lower longitudinal bar diameter fixed = Ø8-Ø14 mm Lattice girder height (min-max) variable = 70-400 mm Lattice girder length (min-max) = 1000-12000 mm Bending pin diameter fixed upper & lower = Ø20 mm Pitch fixed = 200 mm Stirrup wire diameter fixed = Ø6 mm . such as in gardening lattices. and the diagonal stiffening delivers load along the entire length of the bars for resistance. • Modern lattice girders are most often used in the 3-bar or 4-bar configurations. helping to prevent the girder. • A lattice girder is a type of girder with a criss-crossed web design. • Often seen on older bridges or buildings. between the two edges of the girder.Girder = a support beam in construction. The diagonal lines of steel give support in all directions. from bending. • A lattice girder can be used as is or covered in shot-crete for additional load strength.

simple handling ■■Optimum bond and interconnection with the shotcrete lining ■■Simple adjustment and shaping to the excavation geometry ■■ Ideal bearing for spiles and lagging boards ■■Spiles may be installed both above or through the lattice girders 3-bar configuration 4-bar configuration One of the most well-known examples of lattice girder design is France's Eiffel Tower.Fields of Application ■■Passive support system for the excavated cross section ■■Profile template for the excavation geometry ■■Bearing for pre-support elements Advantages ■■ Immediate support in the excavation area ■■Utilization as a true-to-form template for shotcrete application ■■Easy and quick assembling. built in latticed iron in the 1800s. Wall plate beams .

The benefit of using sheeting is its translucence and artificial lighting is not absolutely necessary. For the reinforcement and concreting work. The URW wheel allows moving to take place in a longitudinal direction and a horizontal sliding support at the level of the girder. the weather protection roof is pushed over the permanently installed reinforcement tent. Roofing for the scaffold construction is provided whereby the integrated sheeting offers the best protection against wind and weather. This ensures a fast moving procedure. In this way.Motorway bridge near Grudziądz. This construction provides protected working areas and guarantees continuous operations even in winter as well as resulting in the best concrete quality. . LGS roofs can easily be moved by hand and are also equipped with brakes. All required materials can then be craned in without any problems. the contractor has been able to shorten the planned construction period – and has thus contributed significantly to the success of the project. Poland Two movable weather protection roofs span two incremental launching facilities for the construction of a bridge superstructure.

Folded Plates .

. Prismatic : if they consist of rectangular plates. Prismoidal. The structure has high intrinsic rigidity. The main objective of this structure is to make long span column less spaces. inclined in different directions and joined along their longitudinal edges. high load carrying capacity which makes it economical over large span.• • • Folded plates – assemblies of flat plate or slab. 2. synthetics on the design of the bearings. Construction cost is usually low The analysis and design of folded plate system is relatively easy. The structural characteristics of folding structures depend on the shape of the folding 1. Aesthetically pleasing structures can be designed using variety of shapes and forms.-several folds intersect like a bunch in one single spot On its material 1. Timber Prismatic Prismoidal 3. metal 4. • • Advantages• • • • • the material required is much less than in convention al sysytem. Concrete 2. Disadvantages• Skilled labors required. uninterrupted and linked folding edges where parallel and skew up folds and down folds alternate. triangular or trapezoidal.

Field of application• • • • • • Auditorium dome Bowling alley roof Bakery Gymnasium Assembly hall Art academy Flat slab over a lager cloumn free span Folded slab over a lager cloumn free span Different designs in folded plate system .

Folded plate roof for gymnasium and cafeteriaThere are windows between the tilted Z shaped elements to provide overhead natural light. The shell thickness is three inches . The supports at the ends of the elements are arranged to make it appear that the roof floats on its supports. There are two spans of about 50 and 60 ft.

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