PART-II PACKED BED COLUMN

TYPES OF PACKING

Tower packings can be divided into two distinct categories: random (or dumped) and structured (or ordered) packing. Random packing consists of individual pieces which are dumped into the tower where they are oriented randomly. Structured packing is usually in modular form (blocks or sections), and the modules are designed and placed in a tower with specific orientations

RANDOM, STRUCTURED
RANDOM PACKING
RASCHIG RING  Shaped cylindrically with solid walls and open ends  Manufactured in metal, carbon, plastic, and ceramic.  Carbon Raschig rings are still used in extremely corrosive, nonoxidizing environments.

PALL RING  Commonly used in refinery and petrochemical applications.  Available in metal and plastic under various trade names. "Pall Ring" , "Ballast Ring" and "Flexiring".  Modifed metal Pall rings which provide slightly better performance are available under the trade names "HyPak" , "Ballast-Plus Ring" , and "K-Pac" .

 For these reasons. the ceramic saddles are not preferred for most refinery and petrochemical applications despite their relatively low cost. providing a low void fraction.  Trade names "Intalox Saddles" and "Flexisaddles".Plastic Pall rings are primarily used in low temperature.  .  Properly designed tower bottoms strainers are needed to protect pumps from damage.  Ceramic saddle is thick.  SADDLES  Saddles are available in plastic and ceramic. low pressure systems. This causes a higher pressure drop and lower capacity relative to other types of packings.

Particularly in retrofit situations where modest incremental improvement in a tower's efficiency. In certain applications. or capacity can make or break justification for a project. Examples of these packings are the Miniring . pressure drop. some proprietary packings can offer a significant advantage over the Pall ring.     PROPRIETARY Designed to compete against the Pall ring in efficiency. IMTP etc. pressure drop. and capacity. . The main disadvantage of the proprietary packings compared to Pall rings can be the cost.

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Raschig Rings Random Packing .

Pall Rings Random Packing. .

.Saddles Random Packing.

Proprietary Random Packing. .

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CORRUGATED SHEETS Vertically oriented corrugated layers. Available under the trade names Flexipac . Gempac . and higher capacities than random packings. .STRUCTURED PACKING          Types are the corrugated and grid types. lower pressure drops. Major drawback is cost. Most commonly manufactured in metal. Intalox and Max-Pak. The angled corrugations of adjacent layers are reversed relative to one another. They generally provide higher mass transfer efficiencies. Structured packings can be used in any service random packings are used.

Very high resistance to fouling because of its open design.     GRID Lowest pressure drop and highest capcity of any packing. which in turn reduces the mass transfer provided by the vaporliquid interface on the packing surface. This open design also provides a very low specific surface area. where it is quite effective. . Primarily used for heat transfer services.

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.Corrugated Structured Packing.

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.Intalox Grid Structured Packing.

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Liquid Distributors. . Maintaining a high open area. yet not so open that the packing is not retained. Packing support.INTERNALS : Packing Support .       Gas injection support Most commonly used in random packing applications. support the weight of the packed bed while providing little resistance to the flow of vapor and liquid. PACKING SUPPORTS Bar type. Flashing Feed Galleries  Packing may perform poorly if the internals aren't designed for good liquid and vapor distribution. Bed Limiters/Hold Downs. grid type and the gas injection type. “Hump" design can provide an open area that exceeds 100% of the tower CSA when metal and approximately 80% for other materials.

   Grid type support Most commonly used to support structured packing Commonly consists of parallel bars braced with crosspieces. which provides a very high open area. glass. they may be the only economically viable option.    . Lowest open area of all supports In some very corrosive environments. Bar type supports Consisting of thick parallel bars. The modular or block form of the structured packing allows the bars in the grid to be spaced far apart. are primarily made of and used for ceramics. and graphite.

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    . Weir types are designed for gravity flow of liquid over a weir. Main drawback is plugging. The flow is controlled by the liquid head above the orifice. and plate distributors are the most common. Orifice types are designed for gravity or forced flow of liquid.     LIQUID DISTRIBUTORS Weir type and orifice type. tubular. Orifice Flow A gravity-flow orifice distributor normally provides accurate and uniform flow control. From a mechanical standpoint. the trough. Maintain a uniform flow over the cross-section of a tower even when slightly out-of-level.

A slightly out-of-level distributor can result in substantial maldistribution. Used where the distribution requirements are not stringent. Weir Flow Used in high liquid flow and dirty or fouling systems Modelled by using the Francis formula.      . Weir flow distributors are less prone to plugging.   The forced-flow orifice distributor's effectiveness depends much on the distribution header and orifice pressure drops. Designs with narrow rectangular weirs and high liquid levels over the weirs can provide good distribution. Perforated pipe type distributors are primarily used to distribute a tower liquid inlet stream onto multipass trays or large packed bed liquid distributors.

Attached to a support ring that is welded to the tower wall. orifices. Provide a high open area. Trough Type Control liquid flow using weirs. Often preferred for flashing feeds because it can save tower height and is relatively inexpensive. or a combination of both. Reliable in dirty or fouling services. Consists of a plate with risers for vapor flow. orifices. or a combination of both. Supported either by a support ring or rest on a distributor support grid which rests directly on top of the packing.    Plate Type Control liquid flow using weirs. Consist of a header trough that distributes into lateral troughs. and the vapor pressure drop is negligible.      .

Designed to provide high turndown and low liquid residence time relative to trough types Highly susceptible to plugging. The forced flow tubular distributors have no feed box.      Tubular Type Employ both gravity and forced orifice flow. The two main types are ladder and spray. and the liquid feed enters through a main pipe header. and flows through orifices in lateral pipes. horizontal main header (pipe or closed channel). Feed enters at the top of the feed box in which the liquid level is maintained. The gravity flow tubular distributor consists of a vertical feed box. . and lateral pipes.

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Bed limiters and holdown plates are available in metal. whereas a holddown plate rests on the packing. random packing can be blown into the liquid distributor and even into the tower overhead line. In extreme cases. unless there are serious uplift concerns (resulting from process upsets). These plates are an open type of grid placed above the packed bed which retains the packing and allows passage of vapor and liquid. . and graphite materials. They are rarely used with structured packing. which is less likely to become displaced. A bed limiter is attached to the support ring or clips. FRP. ceramic. plastic.        BED LIMITERS/HOLDOWNS The function of bed limiters and holddown plates is to prevent the packing from being displaced from the bed. Sometimes the bed limiter is integral with the liquid distributor.

Bed Limiter for Random Packing Bed Limiter for Structured Packing .

It consists of two plates: an upper gallery. Holes in the bottom of the upper gallery transfer the liquid to the lower plate where the liquid is distributed over the packing. The two-phase feed is fed to the upper gallery where the vapor disengages from the liquid. Each plate requires a separate support ring. which is 50% open for vapor disengagement. and a lower plate for liquid distribution. . Flashing Feed Distributor is fabricated in sections for passage through column manways. Inlet Deflector Baffle is typically used in front of the feed nozzle to deflect the feed around the tower wall.        FLASHING FEED GALLERIES Flashing Feed Gallery is used to disengage the vapor phase from a two-phase feed.

Flashing Feed Gallery .

com     .de Koch-Glitsch : http://www.koch-glitsch.com Saint-Gobain Norpro : (earlier known as Norton) http://www.Manufacturers and catalogues Major Manufacturers in the field of Column internals and their web address (Refer website for their products.montz.nortoncppc.com Montz : http://www.sulzerchemtech. catalogues and design softwares ) are as follows : Sulzer Chemtech : (also taken over “Nutter”) http://www.

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Liquid Holdup Volume of liquid in a packed bed. The pressure drop through the tower substantially increases to overcome the liquid head. normally expressed as a percentage of the total volume. Liquid holdup is a strong function of the packing type. A higher holdup reduces the volume available for vapor flow. The operation becomes very unstable and is normally characterized by very high pressure drop and very low mass transfer efficiency. liquid rate and properties.PACKING TERMINOLOGY AND CRITERIA          Flooding Occurs when the vapor flow is high enough to entrain the countercurrent flowing liquid and cause a liquid "stack-up". and the vapor rate. . Flooding can also occur if the liquid rate is simply too great for it to flow down without "stacking up".

and the packing factor. Packing Size The size convention of random packings was first derived from the raschig ring which has a height equal to its diameter. packing pressure drops can be calculated over a wide range of operating conditions. with the higher style numbers usually corresponding to larger sizes. Specifying a 1" pall ring. Using vapor and liquid flowrates and densities. .       Packing Factor Determined empirically from experimental data for each packing. Unfortunately. for example. all random packings can't be specified in the same way. meant that it would be 1" high and 1" in diameter. liquid viscosity. The style numbers for a particular type of packing provide a relative size comparison.

e. Depends on the piece count per unit volume. Expressed as a fraction or percentage and provide a relative indication of open space available for vapor and liquid traffic. and important to note that a standardized method for establishing piece counts and specific surface area has not been established. A given surface area for one type of packing may be considerably more effective than the same area for another type. Reported values provide a relative indication of packing surface available for vapor-liquid contacting.. Void Volume Volume of a packing container not occupied by the packing material divided by the total volume of the container. .g. on a ft2 per ft3 basis.        Specific Surface Area The surface area of a packing per unit volume.

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