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SENTENCE PATTERNS

SENTENCE PATTERNS
A sentence in the English Language can be

easily divided as Subject and Predicate. The boy threw out the ball. Subject Predicate

The Subject for the matter can be stated as Noun Phrase (Determiner/Article + Noun)- The (Art) + boy (N)
The Predicate can be labelled as Verb Phrase (Main Verb + Prepositional Phrase) threw(V) + out (Pp)+the(Art)+ball(N)

SENTENCE PATTERNS

There are a variety of sentence patterns that can be found in the English using the Sentence Predicate division. These patterns are actually based on the verb classes of the main verbs in the sentences

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Transitive Verb- Actions are done on to the object. Thus a verb phrase using a transitive verb normally has to have a direct object to be complete or it be ungrammatical. Example: Kate hugged the baby. The dog found a bone. S P dO Atma hit him.

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rules to remember: Transitive Verb VP transitive verb + dO dO NP(noun phrase)

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Intransitive Verb- a class of verb which does not take an object. It requires nothing else to complete the verb phrase. Example: Faiz snores. Fatin cried. S V Ain moved. Rules to remember: Intransitive Verb VP intransitive verb

SENTENCE PATTERNS Other constituents can also occur with intransitive verbs but they are optional Example: Faiz snores very loudly. S V A Fatin cried in the night. S V A Note the different forms of adverbial. The former has a form of an adverbial phrase whereas the latter has the form of prepositional phrase. Though they are different in terms of form but they have the same function.

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Ditransitive verb this type of verb requires two objects. One is the familiar direct object dO and the other indirect object iO Example: Ahmad told the children a story. S V iO dO NP+NP Sue gave Oxfam a jumper S V iO dO Order of iO & dO Sue gave a jumper to Oxfam S V dO iO Ahmad told a story to the children S V dO iO NP+PP

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rules to remember: Prepositional Phrase(PP) PP P(+ NP)

Function: 1. A 2. iO

SENTENCE PATTERNS

However not all VP using the structure V + NP + PP are ditransitive Ken made a cake for the party. S V NP PP (A) Here the PP is not functioning as an iO. You can test by alternating the position of dO and iO Ken made the party a cake.

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rules to remember: Ditransitive verb VP ditransitive verb + iO +dO NP NP Or VP ditransitive verb + dO +iO NP PP

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Intensive verb relational, linking, copular Its a small group which includes verbs like be, seem, appear, become, look and etc. Example: Sally became a doctor. George is in the garden. Sue seems unhappy. What is given after the verbs, relates back to the subjects, describing their states The bit that comes after the verb functions as the Subject Complement, sC (NP,PP,Adj)

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rules to remember: Prepositional Phrase(PP) PP P(+ NP)

Function: 1. A 2. iO 3. sC

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Intensive verbs are incomplete on their own, thus sC is obligatory. Only intensive verbs can appear with just AP. AP (Adv P) + A She seems happy. The dog is quite disgustingly fat.

SENTENCE PATTERNS Complex-transitive verb with this type of verb the complement relates to the object. Its therefore known as Object Complement oC. Example: The voters elected Mary president. S V dO oC Jamal thought Kamal a fool. S V dO oC Carol put the car in the garage. S V dO oC John made Kate angry. S V dO oC

SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rules to remember: Prepositional Phrase(PP) PP P(+ NP)

Function: 1. A 2. iO 3. sC 4. oC