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PHASES OF MENSTRUAL PHASE
• Women experience menstruation for an average of 35 to 40 years of their lives. Since each menstrual period lasts for about five days a month, most women have to deal with it for more than six and a half years over their lifetimes. Menstruation is an important process in women’s bodies. • There are 4 phases in the menstrual process:
1. PROLIFERATIVE (FOLLICULAR) PHASE
• Day 1-5 • During this phase, a primary follicle begins to grow in the ovary, induced by a follicle-stimulating hormone secreted from the pituitary gland. As the follicle matures and the estrogen hormone is secreted, the uterine lining starts to gradually thicken.
stimulating the matured follicle. This is referred to as ovulation. .2. OVULATION • Day 6-10 • The ovum bursts out of its follicle when the levels of the folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) reach their peaks. Some women experience lower abdominal pain at this time.
. the progesterone hormone induces the uterine lining to further thicken and form a cushion preparing the uterine lining for a fertilized egg to be implanted in it. SECRETORY (LUTEAL) PHASE • Day 11-18 • Following ovulation.3.
. This process is referred to as menstruation. MENSTRUAL PHASE • Day 19-28 • During the menstrual phase. If pregnancy doesn’t occur. the estrogen and progesterone levels drop and the uterus will shed its unused lining and expel it along with blood.4. pregnancy occurs when an ovulated egg is fertilized by a sperm and implants itself into the lining of the uterus.
What Causes Menstruation? • The inner wall of the uterus is lined with a substance called the endometrium. • When menstruation begins. but the endometrium is actually a layer of tissue consisting of cells. You may experience blood expelling in lumps during the heaviest flows of your menstruation. This is what causes bleeding during a period. capillaries. This is because your body is unable to create enough enzyme to keep the blood from clotting. the functional surface layer of the endometrium breaks down and peels off. resulting in period cramps. This uterine lining gradually thickens in response to the menstrual cycle and becomes approximately one centimeter thick before menstruation begins. . • You might picture it as a kind of solid wall. and glands that produce secretions.
.How Long Should A Period Last? • A regular menstrual period lasts from 3 to 7 days.
not only due to the size of the uterus or the level of hormonal secretions that month. However. like squeezing paint out of a tube. The position of the uterus also has an influence on how blood is expelled. In its normal position. . the discharge of blood is hindered if the uterus is tilted too far forwards or backwards. • During menstruation. narrower than the hole of a drinking straw. This means it takes a few days for the blood to pass through it. the uterus contracts to expel the blood inside. but also due to the size of the opening for fluid flow into the vagina. The entrance to the uterus is very small. causing the bleeding to be prolonged or to seemingly pause and then increase later in menstruation. the angle of the uterus allows blood to flow out smoothly.Why Does My Period Last For Several Days? • It takes a few days to expel menstrual fluid.
A cycle is considered normal if it lasts anywhere between 21 to 35 days. Your cycle is calculated from Day 1 of your periods and ends just before your next period starts. .How Long A Menstrual Cycle? • An average menstrual cycle is 28 days but this number varies from woman to woman.
.What Is In A Menstrual Blood? • Menstrual blood consists of the shed layer of the uterine lining (broken down and expelled) as well as tissue particles and hormone secretions.
These symptoms are attributed to PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome).Why do women experience irritability and discomfort before the period begins? • Many women experience both physical and emotional anxiety during the premenstrual period due to significant changes in hormone levels. .
. Some researchers put the blame on the progestational hormone. • While you may feel pain during PMS.PMS • PMS refers to a group of physical and mental symptoms of uneasiness that occur about 1 – 2 weeks before the start of a period. and about 51.9% of women “sometimes” suffer from it. They usually go away after you start to bleed. worry not as you do not suffer alone! About 40.1% of women claim that they “always” suffer from PMS. but exact causes of PMS have yet to be discovered. The symptoms of PMS are caused by the drastic changes in female hormones that occur after ovulation.
but the Top 5 are: 1) Irritability 2) Abdominal pain 3) Headaches 4) Drowsiness 5) Breast pain or swelling • Some girls also report acne breakouts. weight gain. bloating. Though PMS presents many discomforts. the good news is that these symptoms disappear about as soon as you start to bleed. . and changes in appetite when going through PMS.Common Symptoms of PMS • There are a variety of symptoms connected to PMS.
Dealing with PMS • There are various ways to make the PMS phase a little more bearable. . Ignoring unpleasant symptoms doesn’t make them go away. Therefore when PMS occurs. take a moment to slow down and relax. 1. rather they are likely to worsen as well as increase your levels of stress. Destress • Studies have confirmed that stress worsens PMS symptoms.
such as coffee. It also helps to get nutrients such as vitamins B6 and E. calcium. and soy isoflavone from supplements.Dealing with PMS 2. magnesium. Diet • During PMS. as well as on sugar and salt. . cut back on items containing a lot of caffeine.
bend to each side while stretching your back and you will find that this will help you relax. helps keep symptoms in check.Dealing with PMS 3. . Bad blood and lymph flows are amongst the causes of irritability.1 A Side-Stretching Pose that controls anger • Being seated for a long time leads to muscle tension and interrupt blood circulation. Try these simple yoga poses that ease the PMS symptoms. Exercise • Exercise can definitely help counter the effects of PMS. for example. Yoga. 3. While facing forward.
2 A Spine-Stretching Pose that refreshes the spirit • At times when you are depressed or emotional. . refreshing your spirit. This improves blood circulation in your back. shoulders and arms.Dealing with PMS 3. Exercise 3. take a deep breath through your nose (abdominal breathing) and stretch your spine out.
First.3 A Cat Pose that eases lower abdominal tension • This is a great pelvis exercise and helps ease constipation and lower abdominal swelling. . bringing your face towards the sky. Exercise 3. Do this in sets of 5. get on all fours. arch your back. round your back. Then. bringing your face towards the ground again. Next.Dealing with PMS 3.
While standing up.4 A Spinal Twist helps the whole body unwind • Settling the blood.Dealing with PMS 3. then to the left. lymph and energy flows of the entire body easing premenstrual swelling and alleviating discomfort. Exercise 3. . twist your upper body to the right.
It can also be due to pelvic congestions due to hormone imbalances. Read tips about how you can deal with period cramps here . bad blood circulation and stress.Why are period cramps painful? • The pain of period cramps is caused by the contraction of the uterus as it tries to push menstrual blood out.
you may have a hormonal imbalance. we advise you to seek the help of a gynaecologist. First.Why are my periods irregular? • There are several reasons that could be causing this. Intense dieting or exercising may also be causes of irregular periods. Stress is also another contributing factor to irregular periods. If this problem persists. .
it’s perfectly normal – all women have vaginal discharge! Vaginal discharge is a combination of cervical mucus and vaginal secretions. .Is it normal to have vaginal discharge? • Yes. It has an important protective function by keeping the vagina lubricated and preventing bacteria and other germs from entering the uterus. This is a part of the self-cleansing mechanism of the vagina.
Should your vaginal discharge be grey or green in colour. white-ish or slightly yellowish in colour. please seek the help of a gynaecologist immediately. or cause you pain and itchiness. have a foul smell. It should not itch or cause discomfort when urinating or during intercourse. It should have a subtle smell. or no smell at all.How do you know if the vaginal discharge is normal? • Normal vaginal discharge is usually clear. .
Chafing is another cause. but the number seems to be falling as the quality of sanitary products has improved. The major causes of rashes and itching during menstruation are dampness and chafing. When the skin is dry. . for example. Being in contact with sanitary pads can result in the vagina being kept damp. the area can be chafed when the skin rubs against the sanitary pad while you are moving or walking. You are bound to get rashes under such a condition as the remaining menstrual flow and any sweat that has not been absorbed by the sanitary pad irritate the skin.Why do women sometimes get rashes and itchiness during menstruation? • More than a few women seem to be troubled by rashes and itchiness during menstruation.
you might have sensitive skin or allergies. Please seek the advice of a gynaecologist or dermatologist to identify a suitable treatment. • If you find that the rashes and itching persists despite taking preventive measures. Be mindful to get sufficient sleep to boost your immunity as you are more prone to rashes when your body’s defenses are down. .How to prevent rashes & itchiness during menstruation • Choose the right sanitary pad that offers comfort. • You should also change pads frequently (once every 3 – 4 hours) and ensure personal hygiene during menstruation.
for example.FEEL GOOD DURING THE PERIOD 1. Change sanitary pads frequently • Keeping clean should be your first priority when you have your period! Change your pads frequently. . • It is advisable to change your pads at least once every 3 to 4 hours. lead to a yeast infection. even on days when you have little menstrual flow. If you neglect to change your pad. the dampness in the area could.
2. This is not a problem if the water is clean. A hot bath actually helps to improve blood circulation and alleviates menstrual symptoms as a result. . consider using a tampon. Draw a Hot Bath • Some people believe that you should not bathe in a bathtub during your period. If your flow is heavy.
3. Exercise within limits • Light exercise and stretching helps you relax your body and improve circulation. . don’t push yourself and take a break if you’re feeling unwell. You can work out as usual but remember. Over-exercising during your period could cause stomach aches. dizziness and general discomfort.
like red meat. you could be prone to anaemia (a condition where the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells) during your period. beans. However. artichokes and liver. egg yolks. lentils. .4. Keep an Iron & Protein-Rich Diet • Since you are losing blood. you can replenish by eating iron and protein rich foods.
Rest well • Low levels of female hormones during menstruation might not only affect your uterus but also various other parts of your body – some girls experience nosebleeds or diarrhoea as well. . Although it varies for each person. symptoms tend to appear when the individual is at her most vulnerable. so make sure you rest well.5. Your entire body’s defences are down during your period.
• Poor blood circulation causes pelvic congestion during menstruation. Keeping warm helps improve blood circulation. . Stay warm. like using a hot compress. thus alleviating menstrual pains.5. Try and find ways to keep your stomach and lower back areas warm.
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