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What is an Atom?
It is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons).
which means uncuttable. • In the 18th and 19th centuries.Etymology • The name atom comes from the Greek ἄτομος (atomos. "not") and τέμνω (temnō. something that cannot be divided further. . chemists provided a physical basis for this idea by showing that certain substances could not be further broken down by chemical methods. "indivisible") from ἀ. or indivisible. and they applied the ancient philosophical name of atom to the chemical entity. "I cut").(a-.
. • In 1789. French nobleman and scientific researcher Antoine Lavoisier discovered the law of conservation of mass and defined an element as a basic substance that could not be further broken down by the methods of chemistry.Origin • Further progress in the understanding of atoms did not occur until the science of chemistry began to develop.
English instructor and natural philosopher John Dalton used the concept of atoms to explain why elements always react in ratios of small whole numbers (the law of multiple proportions) and why certain gases dissolved better in water than others. . unique type. He proposed that each element consists of atoms of a single. Dalton is considered the originator of modern atomic theory. and that these atoms can join together to form chemical compounds.• In 1805.
• Dalton's atomic hypothesis did not specify the size of atoms. . Common sense indicated they must be very small. • Therefore it was a major landmark when in 1865 Johann Josef Loschmidt measured the size of the molecules that make up air. but nobody knew how small.
Subcomponents and Quantum Theory: • The physicist J. discovered the electron. with their charge balanced by the presence of a uniform sea of positive charge. This later became known as the plum pudding model. . and concluded that they were a component of every atom. possibly rotating in rings. negatively charged electrons were distributed throughout the atom. Thomson. through his work on cathode rays in 1897. J. Thomson postulated that the low mass.
bombarded a sheet of gold foil with alpha rays— by then known to be positively charged helium atoms—and discovered that a small percentage of these particles were deflected through much larger angles than was predicted using Thomson's proposal.• In 1909. Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden. Rutherford interpreted the gold foil experiment as suggesting that the positive charge of a heavy gold atom and most of its mass was concentrated in a nucleus at the center of the atom — the Rutherford model. under the direction of physicist Ernest Rutherford. .
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment .
• However. the proton and the neutron.Subatomic Particles • The constituent particles of an atom are the electron. the hydrogen-1 atom has no neutrons and a positive hydrogen ion has no electrons. .
• Electrons ( e− ) – It is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. – It is by far the least massive of these particles at 9. It is generally thought to be an elementary particle electron because it has no known components or substructure. .11×10−31 kg and a size that is too small to be measured using available techniques.
• Neutron ( N ) – have a positive charge and a mass 1. at 1.6726×10−27 kg.6726×10−27 kg. although this can be reduced by changes to the energy binding the proton into an atom.836 times that of the electron. although this can be reduced by changes to the energy binding the proton into an atom. .836 times that of the electron.• Protons ( Z ) – have a positive charge and a mass 1. at 1.
with a double row of elements below. and recurring chemical properties. organized on the basis of their atomic numbers. • The table can also be deconstructed into four rectangular blocks: the s-block to the left. The standard form of the table comprises an 18-column-by-7-row main grid of elements. and the f-block below that. the pblock to the right. • Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (number of protons).What is a Periodic Table? • is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements. . electron configurations. the d-block in the middle.
metals. this became known as the Law of Triads. and potassium. grouping them into gases. Chemists spent the following century searching for a more precise classification scheme.History First systemization attempts • In 1789. . Döbereiner also observed that. for example. Lithium. Antoine Lavoisier published a list of 33 chemical elements. • In 1829. reactive metals. when arranged by atomic weight. nonmetals. sodium. were grouped together in a triad as soft. Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner observed that many of the elements could be grouped into triads based on their chemical properties. the second member of each triad was roughly the average of the first and the third. and earths.
• German chemist Leopold Gmelin worked with this system. • Jean-Baptiste Dumas published work in 1857 describing relationships between various groups of metals. and one group of five. three groups of four. Although various chemists were able to identify relationships between small groups of elements. and by 1843 he had identified ten triads. they had yet to build one scheme that encompassed them all. .
respectively. Mendeleev's table was his first published version. .Mendeleev’s Table • Russian chemistry professor Dmitri Mendeleev and German chemist Julius Lothar Meyer independently published their periodic tables in 1869 and 1870. They both constructed their tables by listing the elements in rows or columns in order of atomic weight and starting a new row or column when the characteristics of the elements began to repeat. that of Meyer was an expanded version of his (Meyer's) table of 1864.
Further Development Alternative Lay-out .
• There are 18 numbered groups in the standard periodic table.Group(family): • It is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. • The elements in a group have similar physical or chemical characteristic of the outermost electron shells of their atoms. but excluding the f-block elements. . as most chemical properties are dominated by the orbital location of the outermost electron. including the d-block elements.
CAS and old IUPAC numbering • Both use numerals (Arabic or Roman) and letters A and B. once on the left of the table. The numbers indicate approximately the highest oxidation number of the elements in that group. Both systems agree on the numbers. and once on the right. with some irregularities in the transition metals. . • The number proceeds in a linearly increasing fashion for the most part. and so indicate similar chemistry with other elements with the same numeral.
such as the f-block. Although groups generally have more significant periodic trends. where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.Periods • It is a horizontal row in the periodic table. . and electronegativity. there are regions where horizontal trends are more significant than vertical group trends. ionization energy. electron affinity. • Elements in the same period show trends in atomic radius.
named according to the sub-shell in which the "last" electron resides. usually offset below the rest of the periodic table. The p-block comprises the last six groups which are groups 13 to 18 in IUPAC (3A to 8A in American) and contains.Blocks • Because of the importance of the outermost electron shell. The s-block comprises the first two groups (alkali metals and alkaline earth metals) as well as hydrogen and helium. . comprises the lanthanides and actinides. among other elements. The f-block. The d-block comprises groups 3 to 12 in IUPAC (or 3B to 2B in American group numbering) and contains all of the transition metals. the different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as blocks. all of the metalloids.
The electrons occupy a series of electron shells (numbered shell 1.PERIODIC TRENDS Electronic Configuration • The electron configuration or organisation of electrons orbiting neutral atoms shows a recurring pattern or periodicity. p. as shown in the diagram to the right. . electrons progressively fill these shells and subshells more or less according to the Madelung rule or energy ordering rule. f and g) • As atomic number increases. d. Each shell consists of one or more sub-shells (named s. and so on). shell 2.
The radius increases sharply between the noble gas at the end of each period and the alkali metal at the beginning of the next period.Atomic radii • Atomic radii vary in a predictable and explainable manner across the periodic table. the radii generally decrease along each period of the table. . • For instance. and increase down each group. from the alkali metals to the noble gases.
Ionization Energy • The first ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove one electron from an atom. For a given atom. successive ionization energies increase with the degree of ionization. the first ionization energy is 738 kJ/mol and the second is 1450 kJ/mol. the second ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove a second electron from the atom. and so on. . • For magnesium as an example.
• In general. The higher its electronegativity. It was first proposed by Linus Pauling in 1932. . electronegativity increases on passing from left to right along a period. and decreases on descending a group.Electronegativty • It is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons. An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance between the valence electrons and the nucleus. the more an element attracts electrons.
. Chlorine most strongly attracts an extra electron. non-metals have more positive electron affinity values than metals. Although electron affinity varies greatly.Electron affinity • The electron affinity of an atom is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion. • Generally. some patterns emerge.
metallic character tends to decrease going across a period and. with some irregularities (mostly) due to poor screening of the nucleus by d and f electrons.Metallic character • The lower the values of ionization energy. nonmetallic character increases with higher values of these properties. and relativistic effects. the more metallic character the element has. electronegativity and electron affinity. tends to increase going down a group. . Given the periodic trends of these three properties. Conversely.
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