Presented to

:

US Army Aviation S&T
This information product has been reviewed and approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Review completed by the AMRDEC Public Affairs Office 1 Jul 2013; PR0001.

Presented by:

10 July 2013

Dr. Bill Lewis
Director, Aviation Development Dir. U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center

AMRDEC Aviation S&T Mission
• Manage and conduct basic research (6.1), applied research (6.2), and advanced technology development (6.3) • Provide one-stop life cycle engineering and scientific support for aviation systems and UAS platforms • Mature technology to maintain relevance of current fleet • Develop and mature technologies to support the future fleet

Aviation Applied Technology Dir. Ft. Eustis, VA

Aeroflightdynamics Directorate NASA Ames–Moffett Field, CA

AMRDEC HQ

Redstone Arsenal Huntsville, AL

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Bottom Line Up Front
• Aviation S&T supports both the current helicopter and future rotorcraft fleets in improving survivability, performance, and affordability • Current efforts are focused on platforms, power, survivability, vehicle management, and operations support and sustainment • Future efforts are focused on Future Vertical Lift (FVL)
– Joint Multi-Role (JMR) Technology Demonstrator (TD) – Focus on Transition to PEO Aviation

Current

Future

Army Aviation S&T balances the needs of the current and future fleets
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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

The Rotorcraft Technical Challenge
Complex, highly interactive physical phenomena…major scientific barriers remain
Multi-disciplinary phenomena Flow field features
• Rotor wake geometry • Tip vortex formation & core structure • Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) near & close encounters • Fuselage flow; bluff body wakes • Interference flows - main/tail rotors, fuselage, ground effect • Hover, transition, forward flight regimes

Basic rotor aerodynamics in forward fight
Advancing blade

Power

UT  V  r
Free Stream

Shock induced flow separation

Low angle of attack Compressibility, shocks Transonic  drag divergence Retreating blade

UT  V  r
Angle of Attack
Free Stream
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High angle of attack Airfoil stall, dynamic stall Reverse flow
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Aviation S&T Focus and Technology Areas
Platform
• • • • Structures Aeromechanics/Rotors Vehicle Mgt & Control Subsystems

Power
• Engines & Other Power Sources • Drives

Mission Systems
• Engagement and Effects • Survivability • Teaming, Autonomy & Info Mgmt • Human Sys Interface • Avionics / Networking

Sustainment
Concept Design and Assessment
MDOF Main Rotor Motions & Loads
Force Signals (3)
Moment Signals (3)

Push-Rod Loads

Electronics Module

Thrust Bearing

Rotor Aeroelastic Models
Power Harvester
pitch rod

Inertial Sensors

Rotor Aero-Elastic Model

Spherical Bearing

Control flap/lag/pitch hinges System Model
shaft extender hub
blade

Pitch Rod Wear / Play Representation
pitch-link stiffness
Healthy Faulty 240 300 360

Spherical Bearing

Thrust Bearing

force
lag damper

Rod-End Loads
Vertical Hinge Load (lbs)

scissors assembly fixed system

swash plate assembly *one blade shown for clarity
-1
Flap Hinge Rotation (deg)
Healthy Faulty

displacement

Pushrod Load (lbs)

Basic Research

0

RF Antenna

Healthy Faulty -500

12000

-1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 -4.5 -5 0 60 120 180

10000

Flap Hinge Rotation (deg)

-1000

8000

-1500

-2000

Pitch Rod Energy Harvester Load (lb) Load Sensor

6000

4000

Vertical Flap Hinge Load (lb)
60 120 180 240 300

Harvester Circuit, Microprocessor, -2500 0 RF 60 120 180 240 300 and Transmitter
Azimuth (deg)

360

2000 0

360

Azimuth (deg)

Azimuth (deg)

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1 - AMRDEC Overview.pptx

Focus Area Activities

Platforms

• Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator* • Rotorcraft Airframe Technology • Lightweight, Durable, & Damage Tolerant Structures • Advanced Flight Control Systems • Reduced Vibrations • Reduced Acoustic Signature • Adaptive Vehicle Management • Improved Vehicle Performance • Advanced Rotors • Aircrew Protection

Power
• • • • • Increased Fuel Efficiency Lightweight Drive Trains Improved Reliability and Durability Reduced Weight/Vibration Alternative Concept Engines

• • • • •

Sustainment
Reduced Maintenance Actions Improved Reliability Improved Mission Readiness Reduced Spares Logistics High Reliability Prognostics/Diagnostics
Gather Desired Capabilities Representative Concept Identification Set Sizing Constraints Gather Technology Inputs Execute Sizing Explore Design Space
Mission Description Geometry Constraint Design Loadings Mission(s) Military Load Flt Envelope

Concept Design & Assessment Mission Systems
• • • • • • • • DVE Mitigation Common Human Machine Interface Increased Levels of Autonomy Manned-Unmanned Intelligent Teaming Cognitive Decision Aiding Reduced Vehicle Signatures Advanced Threat Protection Weapons Integration • Advanced Concept Studies & Design • Attribute and Effectiveness Assessment

Tech Factors
Vehicle Description & Performance

Parametric Trade-offs

Generate Output/Reports Draft Platform Specification

• Rotor Aerodynamics • Flow Control • VLRCOE

Basic Research

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Basic Research Focus Area
•3 funded POM Project lines in the Basic Research Focus Area •Close collaboration with other DoD agencies (ARL, ARO, NAVY), NASA SME’s and facilities •University collaboration using Grants, Post Docs, VLRCOE, and international collaboration using MOAs and MOAs with France, Germany, and Israel

• Fulfills vital role in AMRDEC Portfolio • Resources IN-HOUSE DOD SMEs and facilities • Pursuit of longstanding technology/physics barriers •Transitions to AMRDEC 6.2 and 6.3 programs • RX / TX to other Tech Areas within ADD 6.1 (H45) ILIR (91A)
Experimental investig. of phenomenon Such as lift, drag, stall, and flow control

• Looking at the un-invented GAPS can be: • Flight performance limiters of existing or proposed aircraft • Validation of methods, tech factors, new ideas into design space • Analytical/predictive methods used in aeromechanics • Understanding of fundamental physics critical to flight Example Thrust: FVL Compound 35,000lbs 230+KTAS • Compressibility and blade stall effects impact max range • Interactional aerodynamics of rotor and wing • Complex computational structures/fluids tools required to understand – Is there a way to push the aerodynamics of the wing and rotor in a way that reduces the rotor speed change requirement and simplifies the variable speed drive problem?
Notional 35,000lb FVL 230+ KTAS cruise

Computational structures/fluids method development

Vertical Lift Research Centers Of Excellence (J17)

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Platform
Major Thrusts Apply technology solutions to aerodynamic performance, cost, crew protection and sustainment gaps and demonstrate payoffs to aviation airframe, rotor, and flight control / vehicle management systems. Major Identified Gaps Current R/W platforms fall short in hover and cruise aerodynamic performance, pilot workload and handling qualities, battlefield sustainment and survivability, and procurement and sustainment costs.

• Rotorcraft Airframe Technology • Platform Durability and Damage Tolerance • Advanced Flight Control Systems • Reduced Vibrations • Reduced Acoustic Signature • Adaptive Vehicle Management • Improved Vehicle Performance • Advanced Rotors • Aircrew Protection
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Structures and Subsystems S&T

Non-linear Analyses Multi-body and Dynamic Response Modeling

Large, Integrated Structures

Multi-functional Structures

Key Technologies
• Embedded / virtual sensors • Smart structures • Low area-density armor • Adaptive energy attenuation • Self repairing structures
High Strain Rate Effects Modeling
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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Rotors/Aeromechanics
Rotors /Aeromechanics Provides the Foundation for Significant Increase In Affordably and Operational Capability

Key Technologies
• • • • • Improved Airfoils Active On-Blade Control Rotor Durability and Vibration Control Optimum Speed Rotor Lightweight Actuators and Integrated Control System

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Vehicle Management/Controls

Key Technologies
• Autonomous Guidance • Partial & Full-authority Architectures • Adaptive /Re-configurable Systems
Active Controllers

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Power Focus Area

Drive Systems

Engine Demonstrators

Engine Components

Explore, develop and transition critical engine, drive, and maintenance technologies that enhance the effectiveness of Army Aviation

Objectives:
• Improve the power-to-weight ratio, specific fuel consumption, durability and cost of turboshaft engines • Improve the weight, noise, and durability and cost of rotorcraft drive systems • Improve the effectiveness of aircraft maintenance methods, techniques and equipment

Payoffs:
• Increased mission radius • Increased payload capability • Significant O&S cost savings
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• Decreased maintenance downtime • Increased mission availability • Reduced crew fatigue

Propulsion & Drives S&T

Dual Centrifugal Compressor

Combustor

HPT Nozzle Ceramic shroud

CH-47 Composite Housing

AH-64 Face Gear Transmission

Key Technologies

• Flow control devices • Compact, high heat release combustor • Non - metallic engine components • Torque Splitting Face Gears • Light Weight/Corrosion Resistant Composite Gearbox

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

VAATE
THE PARTNERSHIP

THE MISSION

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APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE, AFRL-WS 07-1431

AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Drive Technology
RDS-21 Apache Block III
Payoffs
• • • •
Split Torque Face Gear Transmission Fielding began in FY12

Face gear design allows for 3400hp rating Reduced parts count (from 3 stage, to 2 stage transmission) Improved VROC Improved reliability

Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System

Apache Block III Lot 7

Payoffs
• • • Improved main transmission and tail drive system allows for 3850hp rating Reduced noise levels Reduced weight

Fielding begins in FY20

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

UNCLASSIFIED

Missions Systems

Major Thrust: Develop and demonstrate operator interfaces, scalable effect weapons,
precision time-sensitive delivery, and multipurpose sensors, integrated for the mission; Improve safety and effectiveness of rotorcraft pilots in degraded visual environments (DVE); manage high workload cockpits with adaptive aiding and autonomy to more efficiently & effectively control, manage, and interact with manned and unmanned aviation assets.

Major Identified Gap: Current subsystems have limited or inadequate capabilities,
that result in operator overload, collateral damage, inefficient application of effects and excessive sensors due to federated systems, ASE subsystems have limited or lacking capabilities, result in excessive parasitic weight, are not well integrated, and do not take advantage of advanced technologies.

• DVE Mitigation • Common Human Machine Interface • Increased Levels of Autonomy • Manned-Unmanned Intelligent Teaming • Cognitive Decision Aiding • Advanced Threat Protection • Active Jammers & Decoys • Weapons Integration
16 UNCLASSIFIED
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Mission Systems Research Areas
Crew Station
•Fully Integrated Next-Gen cockpit •HMI Designed-In •Advanced Controls and Displays •Multi-Function •Helmet Mounted •Heads up •Effective cueing •EDM (Electronic Data Manager)

Flexibility
•Mission reconfigurable •Upgradable •Land based and maritime operations •Tactical and peace-time operations

Navigation/Pilotage
•Integrated GPS •Transponders •Integrated IFF •Decision Aiding/OPV •Integrated DVE/CA/OA

Engagement & Effects
• Scalable effect warheads & weapons • Directed Energy • Counter-UAS and Air-to-Air • Hostile Fire Detection • Next Gen Integrated Targeting, SA, DVE sensor suite • Decision Aiding for optimal , synchronized use of on- and off-board effects • Maritime search, track, and identification of surface and subsurface targets

Avionics Architecture
• • • • • • Advanced Mission Processing High Speed Backplanes Data Concentrators Solid State Recording Devices High Speed Interconnects Open Systems Standards (JCA / FACE) • Information Assurance • Multi-level Security

Survivability
• Signature Management / Suppression • Survivability SA and Planning • Advanced Countermeasures • Tunable Pyrotechnics • Hostile Fire Indication • IASE • Advanced Warning Receivers

Communication
•LOS Voice and Data •BLOS Voice and Data •Integrated Tactical Networks (SRW, WNW, JTRS, etc) •Advanced Antennas (Conformal , Multi-band, etc.) •Interoperability with DHS •Backwards compatibility

Situation Awareness
•Real-time information (threat, weather, a/c state, BC, etc.) •360 Spherical Sensing •Information Mgmt •Data Fusion, Decision Aiding •COP (GIG, BFT, etc.)

MUM-T
•LOI 4 / LOI 2 •Decision Aiding •Wingman

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Distribution Unlimited

AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Joint Common Architecture Approach
ARC-201D

Current Integration Process
ARC-231

• •

ARC-186

Point to point integration Lengthy Development Cycles (18-33 months) Requires each platform to maintain expertise for each product

JTRS AMF-A

16 platform integration activities

Future Process
• • • Integrate to standard interfaces Cross-platform portable Sync new capability across fleet

Yourfilename.ppt

UNCLASSIFIED

Sustainment Focus Area
Propulsion
Power management and Continuous power assurance Improved Torque Accuracy Physics-based LRU Models Bearing and Erosion

System Integration
Global Data Fusion Integrated multilevel system reasoners

Rotors and Dynamic Components
Integrated load/motion sensing Aeroelastic and blade dynamic faultMDOF models Main Rotor Motions Blade damage detection & Loads Wireless transfer to fixed system
Force Signals (3)
Moment Signals (3)

Push-Rod Loads

Electronics Module

Thrust Bearing

Rotor Aeroelastic Models
Power Harvester
pitch rod

Inertial Sensors

Rotor Aero-Elastic Model

Spherical Bearing

Control System Model
shaft extender hub

flap/lag/pitch hinges
blade

Pitch Link

lag damper scissors assembly fixed system
12000

Rod-End Loads
0

swash plate assembly *one blade shown for clarity
-1
Healthy Faulty

displacement

Pushrod Load (lbs)

-500

Vertical Hinge Load (lbs)

RF Antenna

Flap Hinge Rotation (deg)

Healthy Faulty

-1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 -4.5 -5 0 60 120 180 240

10000

Flap Hinge Rotation (deg)

-1000

8000

-1500

Transition to Current and Future Fleet

-2000

Pitch Rod Energy Harvester Load (lb) Load Sensor

6000

4000

Vertical Flap Hinge Load (lb)
60 120 180 240 300

Harvester Circuit, Microprocessor, -2500 0 RF 60 120 180 240 300 and Transmitter
Azimuth (deg)

360

2000 0

360

pitch-link stiffness
Healthy Faulty 300 360

Spherical Bearing

Thrust Bearing

Pitch Rod Wear / Play Representation force

Azimuth (deg)

Azimuth (deg)

Structures
Load and Usage Monitoring Fatigue damage detection Impact damage detection Corrosion Monitoring
Corrosion Detection Damage Detection

Drive System and Mechanical
Gearbox models for prognostics and vibration prediction Planetary gear fault detection Wear detection prognostics Non-metallic debris monitoring

Vehicle Management System
Fault models for VMS components Mechanical controls/bearing prognostics Pump and Actuator prognostics

Electrical System and Wiring
Wiring functional and fault propagation models Advanced wiring sensors Electrical component prognostics

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UNCLASSIFIED

FileName.pptx

Future Low Maintenance Aircraft
O&S Design Goals
• 10,000 Hour Life • Increased operational availability rates
Current Low Maintenance

• Highly accurate fault detection and isolation • Reduction of maintenance man-hours/flight-hour

Future

Technology Needs
• • • • • • • • • • • Sand/FOD Tolerant Engines – advanced particle separators Active Vibration-cancelling Flight control laws to limit peak loads/adapt to vehicle health Carefree maneuvering without component degradation Permanent Erosion Protection – up to 10X improvement Reliable Icing Protection – 100X improvement Multi-Path, Multi-Function wiring configurations Reduced avionics footprint through open architectures New qualification specifications LCC sensitivity models for optimized design Oil-free bearings • • • • • • • • Adaptive engine controls Improved engine and gearbox seals In-Flight RTB Adjustments Composite/corrosion resistant gearbox housings Durability and damage tolerance structures/self repairing Advanced materials Damage tolerant life management through M&S Health awareness through damage detection and loads / usage monitoring • Embedded Diagnostics and Prognostics to reduce maintenance and enable autonomic logistics

Affordability dictates greatly reduced O&S costs – Achieved by moving from today’s maintenance burden to low maintenance.
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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Concept Design & Analysis Focus Area
• Mission: Lead multidisciplinary design of advanced vertical lift aviation systems for manned and unmanned platforms, enable the enterprise to formulate new CONOPS, establish feasible requirements, guide informed technology investments by incorporating technologies in system synthesis across all Focus Areas, and satisfy materiel solutions analysis and development milestones. • Technology Objectives:
– – – Enhance Design Certainty Expand Assessment Capability Improve Timeliness of the Design Cycle

Dsgn & Assess Mthds
Gather Desired Capabilities Representative Concept Identification Set Sizing Constraints Gather Technology Inputs Execute Sizing Explore Design Space
Mission Description Geometry Constraint Design Loadings Mission(s) Military Load Flt Envelope

Create Designs UAVs

Evaluate Concepts A160 UAV

Assess Tech Impact
Gross Weight Empty Weight + Fuel

Tech Factors
Vehicle Description & Performance

Parametric Trade-offs

Generate Output/Reports Draft Platform Specification

Manned

X2 Demo

X-49A
Payload

NDARC

Range

Be flexible: Criticality of customer needs determines projects supported & priority
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AVN Rev Guidance/Format 13 Nov 08 .ppt

Government Design Exploration
Configuration Configuration Trades
• • • • Slowing Rotor/Gearing Utility Layouts for Troop Egress Internal/External Stores Folding

Configuration Explorations
• Pressurization • Shipboard Takeoff/landing Options

250kt+

180-250kt

• Slowing Rotor/Clutching/Gearing • Wing/Rotor Lift Share • Trim/Control Strategies • Utility Layouts for Troop Egress • Internal/External Stores • Folding • Wing/Sponson Fuel

• Anti-Torque Methods • Envelope Limitations

170-180kt

• • • • •

Active Rotor Hub Drag Reduction Maneuver Wing Utility Layouts for Troop Egress Fuel Layout

• Deployment Options • Reduced Signatures

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Design Efforts
Dismounted Soldier Egress

Armor layout

Concept Design for Dismounted Troop Accommodation

Survivability Assumptions • Advanced Helicopter • Big-Wing Compound • Advanced Tilt Rotor

Dismounted Soldier Seated Space Volume

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Future Vertical Lift (FVL) Rotorcraft Vision
Performance

• FVL describes a family of vertical lift aircraft
– Includes multiple sizes/classes of vehicles – Considers the vertical lift needs across the DoD – Achieves significant commonality between platforms – Addresses the capability gaps identified in the Army Aviation Operations CBA, and the OSD-sponsored Future Vertical Lift CBA

Light Medium Heavy Ultra

Affordability
Affordability Size Scale Risk

Range Payload Fuel Efficiency Station Time Speed

Environmental

Future Aviation Capabilities

6K/95 All Weather Ops in Degraded Visual Environment

Survivability

Survivability IR/RF/Laser Kinetic Threat Small Arms

Operational Availability Operations & Support Costs

Sustainability

• Objective vehicle attributes
– – – – – – – – – – –
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Scalable common core architecture Integrated aircraft survivability Speed 170+ kts Range 424 km (combat radius) Performance at 6,000 feet and 95⁰F (“6k/95”) Shipboard Compatible Fuel Efficient Supportable Affordability Optionally Manned Worldwide operations Commonality
AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

JMR Technology Demonstrator (TD)
Purpose: • Demonstrate transformational vertical lift capabilities to prepare the DoD for decisions regarding the replacement of the current vertical lift fleet Products: • Demonstrated and refined set of technologically feasible and affordable capabilities • Technology maturation plans • Cost analysis for future capabilities • Two demonstrator test bed aircraft Payoff: • Reduced risk for critical technologies • Acquisition workforce with improved skill sets to develop specifications and analyze technical data • Data readily available to support future DoD acquisitions

Capability to Perform Worldwide Operations

Performanc e Affordability
Affordability Size Scale Risk Range Payload Fuel Efficiency Station Time Speed

Environmental

Future Aviation Capabilities

6K/95 All Weather Ops in Degraded Visual Environment

Survivability

Survivability IR/RF/Laser Kinetic Threat Small Arms

Operational Availability Operations & Support Costs

Sustainability

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

Questions

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AMRDEC CSD HDC Edwards_AAAA04-12.pptx

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