TRANSFER
• Temperatures varies with location and
time.
• Found in many food processing : thermal
process, pasteurization, frying, etc.

• Where r=0 for a slab, n=1 for a cylinder
and r=2 for a sphere (in one dimensional
analysis)
n
n
p
T k T
r
t c r r r µ
c c c
| |
=
|
c c c
\ .
• The solution for the equation above is very
hard and possible only for certain shape:
infinite slab, infinite cylinder and sphere.
• What is an infinite cylinder or infinite
slab???
Importance of External vs Internal
Resistance to Heat Transfer
• The heat transfer
from the fluid
surrounding object
will encounter two
resistance
(convective and
conductive
resistance)

Solid food
Fluid
heating/cooling
medium
…Biot Number
int tan
tan
/
1/
dim
0.1 int tan
Bi
Bi
Bi
Bi
Bi
ernal conductiveresis ce withinthebody
N
external convectiveresis ceat the surfaceof thebody
dc k
N
h
hdc
N
k
where dc is ensional characteristic
N negligible ernal resis cetoheat transfer
N
=
=
=
<
> 40 tan
0.1 40 int tan
Bi
negligible surface resis ce to heat transfer
N finite ernal and external resis ce to heat transfer < <
Negligible Internal Resistance to Heat Transfer – A
lumped System Analysis
• Occur in :
– Material with high value of k
– Medium with poor value of h
– Well-stirred liquid food in a container

( / )
( )
p
p a
hA c V t
bt
a
a i
T
q c V hA T T
t
T T
e e
T T
µ
µ
÷
÷
c
= = ÷
c
÷
= =
÷
Ta is the medium temperature

• Tanda minus dikarenakan suhu bahan
menjadi lebih kecil dari suhu awalnya.
,
( )
a
p a
bilaT T
T
q c V hA T T
t
µ
<
c
= = ÷ ÷
c
Example….
• Calculate the temperature of tomato juice
(density = 980 kg/m
3
) in a steam-jacketed
hemispherical kettle after 5 min of heating.
The radius of the kettle is 0.5 m. The
convective heat-transfer coefficient in the
steam jacket is 5000 W/(m
2
C). The inside
surface temperature of the kettle is 90
o
C.
The initial temperature of tomato juice is
20
o
C. Assume specific heat of tomato
juice is 3.95 kJ/kg C.
……example
• An experiment was conducted to determine surface convective
heat-transfer coefficient for peas being frozen in an air-blast
freezer. For this purpose, a metal analog of peas was used. The
analog was a solid copper ball with a diameter of 1 cm. A small
hole was drilled to the center of the copper ball, and a
thermocouple junction was located at the center using a high
conductivity of epoxy. The density of copper is 8954 kg.m3, and
its specific heat is 3830 J/KgK. The copper ball (at a uniform
initial temperature of 10 oC) was hung in the path of air flow (at -
40 oC) and the center temperature indicated by the
thermocouple was recorded. The following table lists the
temperatures at one-minute intervals for 14 minutes. Determine
the surface heat transfer coefficient from these data.
time (s) temp (oC)
0 10
60 9
120 8
180 7
240 6
300 5
360 4
420 3
480 2
540 1
600 1
660 0
720 -2
780 -2
840 -3
Finite Internal and Surface
Resistance to Heat Transfer
• The analytical solution for this case is very
hard and possible for only certain shape.
• The use of chart (Heisslers chart)
• The chart correlates unccomplished
temperature fraction (Ta-T)/(Ta-Ti),
inverse biot number and Fourier number.
..Fourier Number
2
2 3
3
3
(1/ )
/
Fo
p
Fo
t k dc d c
N
d c c d c t
rateof heat conduction across dcinabody volumed c
N
rateof heat storageinabody of volumed c
o
µ
= =
=
• Thus a larger value of Fourier number indicates
deep penetration of heat into the solid in a given
period of time.
p
k
c
o
µ
=
Negligible Surface Resistance to Heat
Transfer
• We still use heissler chart with the value of
inverse biot number =0
Finite Object…..
a a a
a i a i a i
finitecylinder infinitecylinder infiniteslab
a a a a
infiniteslab infiniteslab infinit
a i a i a i a i
finiteslab
width depth
T T T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷
=
| | |
÷ ÷ ÷
\ . \ . \ .
| | | | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
| | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
\ . \ . \ . \ .
eslab
height
…example
• Estimate the time when the temperature at the geometric
center of a 6 cm diameter apple held in a 2
o
C water
stream reaches 3
o
C. The initial uniform temperature of
the apple is 15
o
C. The convective heat transfer
coefficient in water surrounding the apple is 50
W/(m
2o
C). The properties of the apple are thermal
conductivity k = o.355 W/(m
2o
C);specific heat cp = 3.6
KJ/(kg
o
C) ; and density ρ=820 kg/m
3
.
Finite cylinder
…..Example…..
• Estimate the themperature are the geometric center of a
food product contained in a 303 x 406 can exposed to
boiling water at 100
o
C for 30 min.The product is
assumed to heat and cool by conduction. The initial
uniform themperature of the product is 35
0
C. The
properties of the food are thermal conductivity k=0.34
W/(m
o
C); specific heat cp = 3.5 KJ/(kg
o
C); and density
ρ= 900kg/m
3
. The convective heat transfer coefficient for
the boiling water is estimated to be 2000 W/(m
2o
C)
Note :……………………………
307 509
7 1
3 3.4375 0.125 3.3125 .
16 8
9 1
5 5.5625 0.25 5.3125 .
16 4
1 . 2.54
A x can
d in
L in
in cm
= ÷ = ÷ =
= ÷ = ÷ =
=
For case of food…..
• The fourier number is usually less than 1
because of the low thermal diffusivity of food (α).
• The use of expanded scale of heissler chart
(based on the work of Schneider, 1963).
• The expanded-scale chart use biot number
directly, and the chart is plotted on linier-log
scale (not log linier).
The end