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ENGINEERING DESIGN GUIDE FOR STORAGE TANKS

DOC NO 3DG M60 001

BY AMIT KHANNA
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DESIGN OF STORAGE TANKS

ATMOSPHERIC OIL STORAGE TANKS AS PER API 650. WATER STORAGE TANKS AS PER AWWA D 100.

DOME ROOF TANKS AS PER API 620. OTHERS LIKE BOLTED,FIELD WELDED,SHOP WELDED AS PER API 12B,12D,12F RESPECTIVELY.
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TYPES OF STORAGE TANKS


FLOATING ROOF CONE ROOF CONE CUM FLOATING ROOF

DOME ROOF

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TYPE OF TANKS

CFR

FR

CR

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SALIENT FEATURES OF API 650

THIS STANDARD COVERS MATERIAL,DESIGN,FABRICATION,ERECTION,AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR VERTICAL,CYLINDRICAL,ABOVE GROUND, CLOSED AND OPEN TOP,WELDED STEEL STORAGE TANKS IN VARIOUS SIZES AND CAPACITIES FOR INTERNAL PRESSURES APPROX. ATMOSPHERIC PRESS. (INTERNAL PRESSURE NOT EXCEEDING THE WEIGHT OF ROOF PLATES),EXCEPT THAT A HIGHER INTERNAL PRESSURE IS PERMITTED WHEN THE ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF APPENDIX F ARE MET.
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SALIENT FEATURES OF API 650

APPENDIX F APPLIES WHEN THE INTERNAL PRESSURE MULTIPLIED BY THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF THE NOMINAL TANK DIA DOES NOT EXCEED THE NOMINAL WEIGHT OF THE METAL IN THE SHELL, ROOF AND ANY FRAMING SUPPORTED BY THE SHELL OR ROOF FOLLOW REQUIREMENTS IN F.2 THROUGH F.6.

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SALIENT FEATURES

INTERNAL PRESSURES THAT EXCEED THE WEIGHT OF THE SHELL, ROOF AND FRAMING BUT DO NOT EXCEED 2.5 PSIG WHEN THE SHELL IS ANCHORED TO A COUNTER BALANCING WEIGHT,SUCH AS CONCRETE RINGWALL, ARE COVERED IN F.7.
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LIMITATIONS OF API 650

VACUUM PRESSURE LIMITED TO 25MM OF WATER COLUMN. INTERNAL PRESSURE CAN BE MAXIMUM UP TO 2.5 PSI. MAX DESIGN TEMP CAN BE UPTO 500 O F.

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LIMITATIONS OF API 620

MAX. INTERNAL PRESSURE CAN BE UPTO 15 PSI. MAX DESIGN TEMP CAN BE UPTO 250O F.

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DESIGN AS PER API 650

TWO METHODS ARE SPECIFIED FOR DETERMINING SHELL THICKNESS

ONE FOOT METHOD FOR TANK DIA LESS THAN 200 FT.

VARIABLE POINT METHOD FOR TANK GREATER THAN 200 FT DIA.

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BRIEF COMPARISION
API 650
BASIC APP. A APP F

API620
BASIC APP. R APP Q

AWWA

MAX. INT. PR . MIN. TEMP MAX TEMP MAX SHELL THK.


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ATM ATM

2.5PSI

15 psi

15 psi 15psi

ATM.

NS

-20OF

NS

-50OF

- 60OF

-270OF

-55 OF

500OF 200 O F 500O F

200OF

-40OF

-200OF

RT

1.75 in 0.50in

1.75

NS

NS

NS

2 IN a

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BRIEF COMPARISION
MIN. SHELL THK. D < 50FT. 50<D <120FT 120<D <200 FT D>200 FT

01.875 IN
0.25 IN 0.3125IN 0.375 IN

01.875 IN
0.25 IN 0.3125IN 0.375 IN

01.875 IN
0.25 IN 0.3125IN 0.375 IN

MIN ROOF THK. MIN. BOTTOM PLATE THK.

0.1875 IN

NS

0.1875 IN

0.25 IN+C.A.

NS d

NS d

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BRIEF COMPARISION
MIN. TOP ANGLE D< 35 FT 35 < D < 60FT D> 60FT 2 in x 2 in x 3/16 in 2 in x 2 in x 1/4 in 2 in x 2 in x 3/8 in NS NS NS NS NS NS

NS = NOT SPECIFIED, CA = CORR. ALLOW. , RT = ROOM TEMP. NS d = MIN. THK OF ANY PLATE IS 0.1875 IN. + C.A.

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DATA SHEET FOR TANKS


GENERAL DATA
SERVICE ROOF TYPE NO. REQUIRED HAZARD CATEGORY ITEM NO. OPERATING CAPACITY INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF SIZE-DIAMETER/HEIGHT(NOM) NET CAPACITY

PROCESS DATA
CONTENTS LIQUID SPECIFIC GRAVITY @OPR. TEMP(MIN.) LIQUID VISCOSITY @OPR. TEMP(MIN.) FLASH POINT VAPOUR PRESSUE @ 20 O C CORROSIVITY TOXICITY FILLING RATE EMPTYING RATE EVOLVED VAPOUR PURGE GAS:INERT / NAT. GAS MOLE WT. VAPOUR/OURGE GAS DESIGN LIQ. DENSITY KG/M3 AMBIENT TEMP: MAX/MIN BLACK BULB TEMP. STORAGE TEMPO MAX/MIN ALTITUDE ABOVE LAT. RAINFALL PRESSURE: MIN/NORM/MAX TANK HEATING TYPE HEAT LOAD NORM/MAX OPERATING LEVEL MIN/MAX TANK MIXERS TYPE/NO. WATER DRAW SUMP GAUGING DESIGN TEMP.

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DATA SHEET
MECHANICAL DETAILS
DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION CODE SHELL DESIGN METHOD DESIGN PRESSURE MIN/MAX DESIGN WIND SPEED SEISMIC CODE/FACTOR FOUNDATION CORR. ALLOW THK SHELL ROOF (DEPENDING ON TYPE) BOTTOM ANNULAR/SKETCH JOINT EFFICENCY BASE MAX. ALLOWABLE SOIL LOADING PRESS. VAC RELIEF TYPE STIFFENING RINGS CATHODIC PROTECTION INSP[ECTION
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INSULATION TYPE/THK PAINT ROOF PAINT SHELL PAINT BOTTOM WEIGHT OPERATING HYDROTEST INSULATION TYPE/THK ROOF ACCESS(EXTERNAL) STAIRCASE TYPE EARTHING BOSS HANDRAILING CLEAN OUT DOOR DIP HATCHES FIRE PROTECTION /CONTROL MANHOLES SURFACE PREPN.
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DATA SHEET
MATERIALS
SHELL SHELL LINING ANNULAR PLATE SKETCH PLATE ROOFPLATE (DEPENDING ON TYPE) ROOF LINING FLOATING ROOF SEAL NOZZLE FLANGES NOZZLE NECKS NOZZLE/MANWAY LINING STRUCTURAL STEEL
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HEATING COIL BOLTS NUTS WELDING FITTINGS GASKETS INSULATION SUPPORTS STAIRS,HANDRAILS,PLATFORMS EARTHING BOSS RADIOGRAPHY STRESS RELIEVING OTHER NDT
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Dome roof tank with external structure

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INPUT DATA FOR DESIGN AS PER API 650

HT.

DIA
PUMPING DATA INFLOW RATE OUTFLOW RATE

NET CAPACITY. GROSS CAPACITY. DESIGN WIND VELOCITY.

SESIMIC ZONE
INTERNAL PR.
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CONTD.

HORIZONTAL ACCEL FACTOR. SOIL DATA. SITE COEFF. Rainfall data in mm/hr VAC. PR. TYPE OF TANK. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE LIQUID STORED. DESIGN TEMPERATURE. CORR. ALLOWANCE.
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Design as per API 620

OTHER THAN WHAT IS ALREADY GIVEN FOR API 650 ADDITIONALY YOU SHOULD HAVE : VAPOUR PRESSURE OF THE LIQUID WHICH NEEDS TO BE STORED.

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APPLICABLE CODES & STDS.

WELDING QUALIFICATION/DETAILS ASME SEC IX. FILLER METALS ASME SEC II PART C. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING ASME SEC V. RADIOGRAPHY ACCEPTANCE ASME SEC VIII DIVN 1 UW51.
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CONE ROOF TANKS

THEIR ROOF CAN BE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING DEPENDING ON THE DIAMETER OF TANK
COLUMN SUPPORTED RAFTER/TRUSS SUPPORTED SELF SUPPORTED

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Typical cone roof tank

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Floating roofs

FLOATING ROOFS ARE PRIMARILY OF THE TYPES AS MENTIONED BELOW.

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Floating roofs

SINGLE PONTOON TYPE IDEAL FOR DIA MORE THAN 17.5 MTR DIA TO 65.0 MTR DIA.

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Typical view of top of FR.

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Floating roofs

DOUBLE DECK ARE IDEAL FOR TANK DIA LESS THAN 17.5 M AND MORE THAN 65.0MTR.

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Floating roofs

HOWEVER FOR CFR TANKS WE CAN ALSO USE ALUMINUM FLOATING ROOF AS PER REQUIREMENT OF CODE AS PER APPENDIX H. HOWEVER THEY HAVE A LIMITATION AS THEY CAN BE USED FOR SMALL DIA TANKS ONLY.

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Aluminum floating roof

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ALUMINIUM FLOATING ROOF


APPENDIX H : THIS PROVIDES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS THAT APPLY TO THE FLOATING ROOF OF A TANK WITH A FIXED ROOF AT THE TOP OF THE TANK SHELL. PLASTIC CAN BE USED FOR THE CORE AND SKIN MATERIAL PER REQUIREMENTS OF [H3.4]. ALL CONDUCTIVE PARTS OF THE INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF SHALL BE ELETRICALL INTERCONNECTED [H.4.2.4]. THE INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF SHALL BE DESIGNED TO SAFELY SUPPORT AT LEAST TWO MEN [H.4.2.5]. ALL DESIGN CALCS SHALL BE BASED ON SG OF 0.7 [H.4.2.6]. METALLIC INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF SHALL BE BUOYANT ENOUGH TO SUPPORT AT LEAST TWICE ITS DEAD WEIGHT AND SHALL BE CAPABLE OF FLOATING AFTER TWO OF ITS COMPARTMENTS ARE PUNCTURED [H.5.1.2].
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FLOATING ROOFS

FOR A ROLLING LADDER TO BE ACCOMMODATED THE DIA. OF THE TANK SHOULD BE AT LEAST 2.5 TO 3.0 MTR MORE THAN THE HEIGHT OF THE TANK. ROLLING LADDER SHOULD BE SELF ADJUSTABLE TYPE. HOWEVER CFR TANKS CAN HAVE A HANG SAFE LADDER ONLY OR ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENT CAN BE MADE.
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Rolling ladder

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ECONOMICS IN DESIGN

THOUGH THE DIA & HT OF THE TANK WILL DEPEND ON VARIOUS PARAMETERS LIKE PROCESS REQUIREMENT,TYPE OF SOIL ETC. THE MOST ECONOMICAL DESIGN CAN HAVE HT. SLIGHTLY MORE THAN THE DIA TO GIVE MOST OPTIMUM DESIGN.e.g. 16 m dia x16.5 mtr ht.
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MATERIAL OF CONSTRUTION

API 650 ALLOWS TO USE MATERIAL LISTED IN CODE AS PER THEIR GROUP NO. MOST COMMONLY USED MOC ARE 283 GRC,A36,516 GR60,70,A537 CL1. 537 CL11 INVOLVES SPECIAL WELDING SKILLS AND IS NORMALLY AVOIDED.
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MOC
PLATES : PLATES SHALL CONFORM TO THE LATEST EDITION OF ONE OF THE SPECIFICATIONS REFERRED BELOW
ASTM STANDARDS [2.2.2 ] CSA STANDARDS [2.2.3 ] ISO STANDARDS [2.2.4 ] NATIONAL STANDARDS [2.2.5 ]
SHELL PLATES ARE LIMITED TO A MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF 1.75" UNLESS A LESSER THICKNESS IS SPECIFIED. PLATES THICKER THAN 1.5"SHALL BE NORMALIZED OR QUENCH TEMPERED, KILLED, MADE TO FINE GRAIN PRACTICE AND IMPACT TESTED [2.2.1.4]

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WELDING AS PER ASME SEC IX

WELDING ELECTRODES : FOR THE WELDING OF MATERIALS WITH A MINIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH LESS THAN 80 KIPS PER SQUARE INCH, MANUAL ARC-WELDING ELECTRODES SHALL CONFORM TO THE E60 AND E70 CLASSIFICATION SERIES.

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SHELL DESIGN

AFTER CAREFULLY SELECTING THE MOC THE THK. SHOULD BE WORKED OUT AS PER ALLOWABLE STRESS OF THE MOC GIVEN IN CODE. CHECK FOR REQUIREMENT OF STRESS ANALYSIS, KILLED OR SEMI KILLED MATERIAL. FOR LOW TEMP CHECK FOR IMPACT TESTING AS GIVEN IN CODE.
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FORMULA USED
T = 2.6 D (H-1) * G + C.A. Sd OR St.
WHERE T = THK. OF SHELL CORSE IN INCHES. WHERE D = DIAMETEROF THE TANK IN FEET. WHERE H = HEIGHTOF THE TANK IN FEET. WHERE G = SP. GRAVITY. WHERE SD=DESIGN STRESS IN PSI. WHERE ST = HYDROSTATIC STRESSIN PSI. WHERE C.A.= CORROSION ALLOWANCE IN INCHES.
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SHELL DESIGN : THE REQUIRED SHELL THICKNESS IS DEFINED AS THE GREATER OF THE DESIGN SHELL THICKNESS, INCLUDING ANY CORROSION ALLOWANCE, OR THE HYDROSTATIC TEST SHELL THICKNESS. THE SHELL THICKNESS SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN THE FOLLOWING NOMINAL TANK DIA NOMINAL PLATE IN FT. THK. IN INCHES
< 50 50 TO <120 120 TO 200
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3/16 5/16

>200

3/8

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Shell design
Guidelines for computing the design shell thickness and hydrostatic shell thickness are given. The permissible plate materials and maximum allowable product design stress, Sd are covered in [Table 3-2 ]. The design stress basis Sd shall be the lesser of two-thirds the yield strength or two-fifths the tensile strength.

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SHELL DESIGN CONTD

THE VACUUM SHOULD BE ADDED IN THE WIND PRESSURE TO DETERMINE SHELL THK. INTERNAL PRESSURE TO BE TAKEN BY INCREASING THE HT. OF THE TANK EQUIV. TO INT. PR. WATER COLUMN.E.

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SHELL PLATE ERECTION

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WIND GIRDERS
TOP AND INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS: AN OPEN TOP TANK SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH STIFFENING RINGS TO MAINTAIN ROUNDNESS WHEN TANK IS SUBJECTED TO WIND LOADS. TYPES OF STIFFENING RINGS, RESTRICTIONS ON STIFFENING RINGS, STIFFENING RINGS AS WALKWAYS, SUPPORTS, CALCULATION OF SECTION MODULUS FOR TOP AND INTERMEDIATE WIND GIRDERS ARE ADDRESSED IN SECTION 3.9.

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WIND GIRDER DESIGN

TO BE CALCULATED USING THE TRANSPOSED WIDTH METHOD. IF EXPERIENCING MORE NO OF WIND GIRDERS THEN INCREASE THE SHELL THK. MARGINALLY .

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WIND GIRDER DESIGN

FLOATING ROOF TANKS INVARIABLY WILL HAVE ONE PRIMARY WIND GIRDER WHICH IS USED AS A WALK WAY ALSO. THE SIZE OF SECONDARY WINDGIRDER. SHOULD BE SUCH THAT IT DOESNOT INTERFERE WITH THE STAIRWAY. SO IDEALLY THE WIDTH OF THE WEB SHOULD BE LESS THAN 200 mm.
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BOTTOM PLATE

THE NOMINAL THK SPECIFIED IN THE CODE IS 6 MM. HOWEVER ANNULAR PLATE THK NEEDS TO BE SIZED IN TERMS OF WIDTH AND THK.

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ROOFS
ROOFS [3.10]: ALL ROOF PLATES SHALL BE DESIGNED

TO SUPPORT DEAD LOAD PLUS A UNIFORM LIVE LOAD OF NOT LESS THAN 25 PSF. MINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS OF 3/16 IS SPECIFIED FOR ROOF PLATES. DESIGN REQUIRED FOR FRANGIBLE ROOF TO SHELL DESIGN ARE LISTED IN [3.10.2.5.1]. FAILURE OF THE ROOF TO SHELL JOINT IS USUALLY INITIATED BY BUCKLING OF THE TOP ANGLE AND FOLLOWED BY TEARING OF THE 3/16 INCH CONTINUOUS WELD OF THE PERIPHERY OF THE ROOF PLATES [3.10.2.5.1]. IN CASE THE ROOF TO SHELL JOINT IS NOT FRANGIBLE THEN EMERGENCY VENTING DEVICES IN ACCORDANCE WITH API 2000 SHALL BE PROVIDED BY THE PURCHASER. 47 10/18/2013

ROOF PLATE

THE NOM. THK SPECIFIED IN THE CODE IS 5 MM. IF CORR. ALLOW. IS ADDED TO THIS THEN THE SPACING BETWEEN THE RAFTERS CAN BE INCREASED .

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SESIMIC DESIGN

SHALL BE DONE AS PER APPENDIX E. CHECK FOR TANK STABILITY WITH RESPECT TO WIND MOMENT AND SESIMIC MOMENT. IF UNSTABLE DO EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING: INCREASE SHELL THK OR ANNULAR PLATE THK OR ANCHOR THE TANK AS PER CODE.

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CURB ANGLE

CURB ANGLE SIZE IS DEFINED IN THE CODE FOR DIA OF THE TANK. CHECK FOR FRANGIBILITY. IF SHELL TO ROOF JOINT IS NOT FRANGIBLE PROVIDE EMERGENCY VENT DEVICE.

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ANCHOR CHAIR AND BOLT

ANCHOR CHAIR DESIGN IS GIVEN IN API 620. THE CODE SPECIFIES THE SPACING TO BE KEPT FOR DIFFERENT DIAMETERS. ANCHOR BOLT LENGTH SHALL BE DEPENDENT ON BOND STRESS OF CONCRETE OR ALTERNATIVELY THE LENGTH CAN BE REDUCED BY PROVIDING ANCHOR AT THE BASE OF THE PLATE.
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TANK VENTING

VENTING IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART IN TANK DESIGN AS NO. OF FAILURES HAVE BEEN EXPERIENCED ON ACCOUNT OF THESE. THE CODE TO BE FOLLOWED IS API 2000. THE VENT MUST ALSO BE CHECKED BY THE PROCESS ENGINEER FOR THE PRESSURE DROP ACROSS IT.
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FLOATING ROOF
APPENDIX C- ADDRESSES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS OF EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOFS. MINIMUM THICKNESS OF DECK PLATES SHALL HAVE A NOMINAL THICKNESS OF 3/16 INCH [C3.3.2]. TOP DECK OF DOUBLE DECK ROOFS AND OF PONTOON SECTIONS WHICH ARE DESIGNED WITH PERMANENT SLOPE , SHALL HAVE A MINIMUM SLOPE OF 3/16 INCH IN I FOOT [C3.3.4].

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FLOATING ROOFS
FLOATING ROOFS SHALL HAVE SUFFICIENT BUOYANCY TO REMAIN AFLOAT.ON LIQUID WITH SG OF 0.7 AND WITH PRIMARY DRAINS INOPERATIVE [C3.4.1]. EACH COMPARTMENT OF THE PONTOON OPENING SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH A LIQUID-TIGHT MANHOLE [C3.5]. THE FLOATING ROOF SHALL BE SUPPLIED WITH LADDER THAT AUTOMATICALLY ADVANCES TO ANY ROOF POSITION [C.3.7].
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FLOATING ROOF DESIGN

FOR A SINGLE DECK PONTOON TYPE THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT IS ITS WIDTH ,OUTER RIM HEIGHT AND THE INNER RIM HEIGHT. FLOATING ROOFS ARE SUBJECTED TO EITHER OF THE FOLLOWING DESIGN CONDITIONS.
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FLOATING ROOF DESIGN

10 INCHES OF RAINFALL WATER ACCUMULATION OR PUNCTURED DUCK WITH TWO ADJACENT COMPARTMENTS PUNCTURED. IT IS PREFERRED THAT THE OUTER RIM SUBMERGENCE SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 65 % FOR A CONSERVATIVE DESIGN.
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LEG SUPPORTS

THE FLOATING ROOF IS DESIGNED FOR OPERATING LEVEL AND MAINTENANCE LEVEL.THE NORMAL INDUSTRY PRACTICE IS TO HAVE 1200 MM AS OPERATING LEVEL AND 1800MM AS MAINTENANCE LEVEL. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO DESIGN THE LEG SUPPORTS AS A VERY HEAVY LEG SUPPORT IS A PROBLEM FOR THE OPERATIONS TEAM.
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LEG SUPPORTS

IDEALLY WE USE EITHER 80 NB WITH A SLEEVE OF 100 NB OR 100 NB WITH A SLEEVE OF 125NB. NORMALLY THE RADIAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE LEG SUPPORTS SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 5 MTRS FOR DECK THK OF 5 MM. THE MAX LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL LEG SUPPORT IS LIMITED BY L/R RATIO WHICH SHOULD NOT EXCEED 180.
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TANK BOTTOM VIEW

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ANTIROTATIONAL DEVICE

SIZING OF ANTIROTATIONAL DEVICE NEEDS TO BE DONE FOR RESTRICTING THE MOVEMENT OF THE TANK IN SWAYING IN ANY DIRECTION CIRCULARLY.

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FLOATING ROOF SEALS

PRIMARY SEALS ARE THE FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST PRODUCT EVAPORATION AND VAPOR EMISSIONS. MOST GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS REQUIRE PRIMARY SEALS ON ALL FLOATING ROOFS. THE OPTIMAL SEAL HAS INSULATED STAINLESS STEEL HANGERS WITH 316L STAINLESS STEEL COILSPRINGS. GALVANIZED OPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE, SOME ADVANTAGES ARE:
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FLOATING ROOF SEALS

REDUCE RISK OF RIM FIRES INSTALLATION OR MAINTENANCE WITH TANK IN SERVICE

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FLOATING ROOF SEALS

UNIFORM CENTERING FORCES AT LOW STRESS LEVELS DESIGNED FOR INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS STANDARD DESIGN FOR 8 IN. (+/- 4 IN.) RIM SPACE ALTERNATE DESIGNS ARE AVAILABLE
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Double wiper type seal

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Single wiper type

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SECONDARY SEAL
TO FURTHER REDUCE PRODUCT LOSS AND VAPOR EMISSIONS, A
SECONDARY SEAL IS ADDED ABOVE THE PRIMARY SEAL. MOST REGULATIONS REQUIRE THESE SEALS ON EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOFS. SOME ADVANTAGES ARE: SEGMENTAL COMPRESSION PLATE DESIGN WITH 2 IN. LAP SEAL INSTALLATION OR MAINTENANCE WITH TANK IN SERVICE INSTALLATION ON VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL RIM INDIVIDUAL COMPRESSION PLATES MAY BE REMOVED WITHOUT AFFECTING PRIMARY SEAL STANDARD DESIGN FOR 8 IN. (+/- 4 IN.) RIM SPACE ALTERNATE 12 IN.
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FLEXIBLE DRAIN ARRANGEMENT


ARTICULATE DRAIN SYSTEM IS REQUIRED FOR FLOATING ROOF TANKS TO CATER FOR RAIN WATER BEING REMOVED FROM DECK TOP.

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TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF COFLEXIP ROOF DRAIN

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OTHER VENTS

FLOATING ROOF SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH BLEEDER VENT AND RIM VENTS TO TAKE CARE OF ANY VACUUM BEING CREATED DURING PUNPING CONDITIONS. STANDARD PRACTICE IS TO PROVIDE MIN. TWO RIM SEAL OR ALTERNATIVELY AT EVERY 50 MTRS OF TANK CIRCUMFERENCE.

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HEATING COILS

CERTAIN TANKS STORING CLASS C PETROLEUM WILL BE PROVIDED WITH FLOOR COIL HEATERS TO HELP REACH STORED LIQUID TO ITS POUR POINT. HOWEVER IT IS USED FOR CRUDE OIL TANKS ALSO.

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HEATING COILS

CLASS C IS WITH FLASH POINT GREATER THAN 65 O C.

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HEATING COILS

SIZING OF FLOOR HEATERS IS DONE BY PROCESS ENGINEER TAKING INTO CONSIDEARTION THE TIME REQUIRED FOR HEATING THE TANK CONTENTS . TO AVOID IBR REGULATIONS IT IS DESIRED THAT WE USE SATURATED STEAM WITH PRESS. LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 3.5BAR (G)BECAUSE OF ITS HIGH OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT .
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Appurtenances

TANKS SHALL BE PROVIDE WITH THE FOLLOWING: SHELL: MANHOLES ( 1 FOR 0-60) 2 FOR 60-120 3 FOR 120-200

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Appurtenances

4 OVER 200 INLET OUTLET DRAW OFF SUMP ROOF DRAIN (FOR F.R.)

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Appurtenances

ROOF: MANHOLE VENT WITH FLAME ARRESTOR RIM VENTS GAUGE HATCH LEVEL MEASUREMENT DEVICES

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INSULATION

TANKS WITH HEATING COILS ARE PROVIDED WITH INSULATION AT SHELL AND ROOF TOP. IN THIS TANK THE SPIRAL STAIRWAY SHALL BE 200 MM AWAY FRO THE TANK AND SHALL BE STRINGER TYPE.

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INSULATION

SUITABLE PROVISION AT TANK TOP IS TO BE MADE FOR ACCESS TO NOZZLES. NORMALLY LRB MINERAL WOOL IS USED AS INSULATION MATERIAL WITH ALUMINUM CLADDING.SUITABLE PROVISION IS TO BE PROVIDED ON THE TANK FOR HOLDING THE SAME.
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MIXERS

THIS NOZZLE/FLANGE MAY REQUIRE SPECIAL SIZING TO MATCH THE MIXER SUPPLIER SPECIFICATION. SUPPORTS FOR THE MIXER SHALL BE SUPPLIED AND INSTALLED BY THE TANK CONTRACTOR.

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STANDARD TANK EQUIPMENTS


LEVEL INDICATOR LEVEL TRANSMITTER TEMP GAUGE LEVEL SWITCHES

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Cooling & foam system

COOLING SYSTEM AND FOAM SYSTEM ARE TO PROVIDED IF REQUIRED AS PER NFPA CODE. FOAM POURERS ARE TO BE PROVIDED WITH DEFLECTOR PLATES FOR EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANKS.

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Cooling & foam system

RIM SEAL PROTECTION FOR FLOATING ROOF. FOAM DAM SHALL BE PROVIDED TO ACCUMULATE THE FOAM BEING POURED FROM THE POURER.

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CORROSION PROTECTION

THE STORAGE TANK STEEL SURFACES ARE TO BE PROTECTED FROM EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CORROSION. THIS WILL DEPEND ON SITE CONDITIONS AND PRODUCT TO BE STORED.
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CORROSION PROTECTION

Internal Coating. TANKS MAY BE COATED INTERNALLY WITH PAINTS OR EPOXY LININGS FOR PROTECTION FROM CORROSION BY STORED FLUIDS. ALL SUPPORTS INSIDE INCLUDING STRUCTURALS UNDER THE ROOF SHALL BE COATED..
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CORROSION PROTECTION

SPECIAL ATTENTION SHALL BE GIVEN TO SURFACE PREPARATION FOR INTERNAL COATING,AND TO CURING REQUIREMENTS OF THE COATING. CORROSION PROTECTION NACE REQUIREMENTS SHALL BE SPECIFIED PER THE PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS FOR INTERNAL COATING. EXTERNAL PAINTING.
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CORROSION PROTECTION

EXTERNAL PAINTING. SPECIFY THE TYPE OF PRIMER AND FINISH COATS OF PAINT INCLUDING DRY FILM THICKNESS REQUIRED PER THE PROJECT PAINTING SPECIFICATION. USUALLY THE TANK CONTRACTOR'S SCOPE WILL INCLUDE SURFACE PREPARATION AND PRIMER APPLICATION, WHILE THE FINISH COAT WILL BE APPLIED BY OTHERS.
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CORROSION PROTECTION

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENTS NORMALLY ALL LADDERS, PLATFORMS, STAIRS, RAILINGS AND CAGES ARE TO BE HOT DIP-GALVANIZED. ALL OTHER ATTACHMENTS WELDED TO THE SHELL SHALL BE PAINTED TO THE PROJECT PAINT SPECIFICATION FOR THE TANK EXTERIOR.
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CORROSION PROTECTION

BOTTOM PLATE COATING. THE BOTTOM PLATE MAY BE COATED ON THE UNDERSIDE WITH EPOXY PER SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS. AN ADDITIONAL 1/16" CORROSION ALLOWANCE MAY BE SPECIFIED FOR THE UNDERSIDE OF THE BOTTOM, WITH OR WITHOUT THE BOTTOM COATING.

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FOUNDATION DESIGN

TYPICALLY FLAT BOTTOM TANKS ARE INSTALLED ON RINGWALL FOUNDATIONS. SMALL TANKS (15'20' DIA) AND THOSE REQUIRING LEAK DETECTION MAY BE INSTALLED ON CONCRETE SLAB FOUNDATION.

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FOUNDATION DESIGN

FOR TANKS STORING PRODUCTS LIKE CHLORINE, ACIDS AND HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS, THE FOUNDATION MAY BE COVERED WITH A PROTECTIVE COATING.

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FOUNDATION DESIGN

SOIL CONDITIONS WHICH PRODUCES UNUSUAL SETTLEMENT OF FOUNDATIONS SHALL BE GIVEN TO THE TANK CONTRACTOR IN CONSULTATION WITH THE CIVIL GROUP. THE LATTER MAY REQUIRE TANKS TO BE KEPT FILLED WITH WATER AFTER HYDROTEST FOR A LONGER PERIOD TO MONITOR GRADUAL SETTLEMENT, PRIOR TO MAKING PIPING CONNECTIONS.
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LIGHTNING PROTECTION/GROUNDING LUGS

THESE LUGS ARE SUPPLIED AND INSTALLED BY THE TANK CONTRACTOR. REVIEW THE ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION FOR THEIR DETAILS INCLUDING LOCATION AND QUANTITY.

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INSPECTION & TESTING

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED BY THE CLIENT, ALL INSPECTION AND TESTING SHALL BE PER API STANDARDS.

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INSPECTION & TESTING

THE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT SHALL PREPARE AN INSPECTION PLAN FOR SHOP FABRICATED TANKS AND SHOP FABRICATED COMPONENTS OF FIELD ERECTED TANKS PER PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS/ GUIDELINES, AND THE VESSEL ENGINEER SHALL REVIEW THE SAME. THIS PLAN WILL BE PART OF THE TANK CONTRACT.
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INSPECTION & TESTING

FIELD INSPECTION OF TANK ERECTION AND TESTING SHALL BE ADMINISTERED BY THE GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTOR/CLIENT. TESTING. PRESSURE TESTS.
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INSPECTION & TESTING

HYDROSTATIC TESTING SHALL BE SPECIFIED IN THE MECHANICAL DATA SHEET OF STAINLESS STEEL TANKS REVIEW THE CHLORIDE CONTENT OF THE TEST WAT. THE TEST WATER SHALL BE CLEAN AND FREE OF SILT OR ANY SUSPENDED SOLIDS. IN CASE ER AVAILABLE AT THE SITE. THE CHLORIDE CONTENT SHALL NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LIMIT.
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INSPECTION & TESTING

ALL HYDROSTATIC OR PNEUMATIC TESTS SHALL BE PER API STANDARDS.

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INSPECTION & TESTING

NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS.

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INSPECTION & TESTING

RADIOGRAPHY AND ANY OTHER NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION SHALL BE SPECIFIED PER API STANDARDS AND/ OR PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. VACUUM TESTS.

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INSPECTION & TESTING

VACUUM BOX TESTING SHALL BE SPECIFIED FOR BOTTOM JOINTS, BOTTOM TO SHELL JOINTS AND ROOF PLATE JOINTS PER API STANDARDS.

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX A OPTIONAL DESIGN BASIS FOR SMALL TANKS. APPENDIX B RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATIONS. APPENDIX C EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOFS. APPENDIX D TECHNICAL INQUIRIES.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX E SEISMIC DESIGN. APPENDIX F DESIGN FOR SMALL INTERNAL PRESSURES. APPENDIX G STUCTURALLY SUPPORTED ALUMINIUM DOME ROOFS. APPENDIX H INTERNAL FLOATING ROOG ROOFS.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX I UNDERTANK LEAK DETECTION. APPENDIX J SHOP ASSEMBLED STORAGE TANKS. APPENDIX K SAMPLE CALCULATION ON VARIABLE DESIGN. APPENDIX L API 650 DATA SHEETS.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX M FOR ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. APPENDIX N USE OF NEW MATERIALS. APPENDIX O RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UNDER BOTTOM CONNECTIONS. APPENDIX P ALLOWABLE EXTERNAL LOADS ON TANK SHELL OPENINGS. APPENDIX S AUSTENTIC STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN.
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EXTERNAL FLOATING ROOF

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NOZZLE ORIENTATION
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CONE ROOF TANK


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