# CS1010: Programming Methodology http://www.comp.nus.edu.

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Week 4: Selection Statements
Objectives:  Using relational and logical operators  Using selection statements in a program  Formulating complex selection structures to solve decision
problems.

Reference:  Chapter 4 Lessons 4.1 – 4.6, Beginning Decision Making

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1)

Week4 - 2

Week 4: Outline (1/2)
1. Week 3 Exercises 2. Sequential vs non-sequential control flow 3. Selection Structures
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 if and if-else Statements Conditions Truth Values Logical Operators Evaluation of Boolean Expressions Short-Circuit Evaluation

4. Indentation Style 5. Quiz 6. Demo #1: Hi-Lo Game

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1)

Week4 - 3

Week 4: Outline (2/2)
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Indentation Style Again Exercise #1: Leap Year Demo #2: Maximum of 3 Numbers Very Common Errors Nested if and if-else statements Exercise #2: Taxi Fare switch Statement Demo #3: Zip code reader Exercise #3: NRIC Check Code (take-home)

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1)

Week4 - 4

 Sample run (values printed in 2 decimal places): Temperature in degree Fahrenheit: 95.c that calculates the speed of sound (s) in air of a given temperature T (oF). Decide on its parameter(s). Formula to compute the speed s in feet/sec: 5T  297 s  1086 247  Values are of type float.1. Week 3 Exercise #3: Speed of Sound Write a program Week3_SpeedOfSound.  You should have a function speed_of_sound() to compute and return the speed.92 ft/sec  Bring your program to class next week  This exercise is also mounted on CodeCrunch CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .5 .8 Speed of sound in air of 95.80 degree = 1924.

we get 16.1. Week 3 Exercise #4: Magic Number Write a program Week3_MagicNumber. The right-most digit of the sum is the required answer. adds up the digits (from right) in positions 1. then adding up the digits 4. 5 and 7. 3. and 5.6 .  You should have a function get_magic() to compute and return the answer.  For example. Decide on its parameter(s). The answer is hence 6.c that reads two positive integers (with at most 5 digits) and for each. What is the precondition of the function?  Sample run: Enter Magic Enter Magic 1st value: 76524 number = 6 2nd value: 8946 number = 5  Bring your program to class next week  This exercise is also mounted on CodeCrunch CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . if input is 76524.

Pop Quiz (1/2)  What is the output of this code and what value does the function f() return?  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .7 .

8 .Pop Quiz (2/2)  What is the output of this code?  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .

9 .2. Draw Triangle rocket Draw Rocket Ship Draw Rectangle Draw Inverted V Draw Circle male Draw 3 Figures Draw Male Stick Figure Draw Rectangle Draw Inverted V Draw Circle Draw Triangle Draw Female Stick Figure Draw Inverted V female CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . a male stick figure. and a female stick figure. Sequential Control Flow Recall last week‟s Simple “Drawing” Problem: Write a program to draw a rocket ship.

(2) male stick figure. Non-sequential Control Flow New Requirement: Write a program to allow the user to select only one of the following options: Draw a (1) rocket ship.10 .2. or (3) a female stick figure. Draw Triangle Select only one Draw 3 Figures Draw Rocket Ship Draw Rectangle Draw Inverted V Draw Circle Draw Male Stick Figure Draw Rectangle Draw Inverted V Draw Circle Draw Triangle Draw Female Stick Figure Draw Inverted V CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .11 . Selection Structures  C provides two control structures that allow you to select a group of statements to be executed or skipped when certain conditions are met.3.

1 if and if-else Statements  true cond? if statement How are conditions specified and how are they evaluated? false if ( condition ) { /* Execute these statements if TRUE */ } Braces { } optional only if there is one statement in the block.12 .  true cond? false if-else statement if ( condition ) { /* Execute these statements if TRUE */ } else { /* Execute these statements if FALSE */ } CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .3.

( count > max ). It is composed of expressions combined with relational operators. ( value != -9 ) Relational Operator < <= > >= == != Interpretation is less than is less than or equal to is greater than is greater than or equal to is equal to is not equal to Week4 .3.13 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) . Relational operators  Examples: ( a <= 10 ).2 Condition    A condition is an expression evaluated to true or false.

a. int b = (3 > 2). There is no boolean type in ANSI C. b). we use integers:   0 to represent false Any other value to represent true (1 is used as the representative value for true in output) Week4_TruthValues. Instead.3. b = %d\n". printf("a = %d.  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .14 .c  Example: int a = (2 > 3).3 Truth Values (1/2)   Boolean values: true / false.

// 13 assigned to a // 1 assigned to b // 6 assigned to c  You are certainly not encouraged to write such convoluted codes! CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .3. int c = ( (4 > 5) < (3 > 2) ) * 6. we can have codes like these: int a = 12 + (5 >= 2).15 . int b = (4 > 5) < (3 > 2) * 6.3 Truth Values (2/2)   Be careful of the value returned/evaluated by a relational operation. Since the values 0 and 1 are the returned values for false and true respectively.

go to A&E immediately.  Logical operators are needed: && (and).4 Logical Operators   Complex conditions: combine two or more boolean expressions. If all the three subject scores (English. || (or). ! (not). A False False True True B False True False True A && B False False False True A || B False True True True !A True True False False Note: There are bitwise operators such as & . recommend taking Higher Mother Tongue. Maths and Science) are greater than 85 and mother tongue score is at least 80. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . | and ^.3.16 . Examples:   If temperature is greater than 40C or blood pressure is greater than 200. but we are not covering these in CS1010.

b = -2.c  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . c = 0. gcc issues warning (why?)  Example #2: What is the value of x? x = ((a > b) && !(b > c)). Example #1: What is the value of x? int x.17 . x = (a > b && b > c || a == b).3. a = 4. See Week4_EvalBoolean.5 Evaluation of Boolean Expressions (1/2)   The evaluation of a boolean expression proceeds according to the precedence and associativity of the operators.

3.! ~ ++expr --expr (typecast) sizeof * / % + < > <= >= == != && || Ternary operator Assignment operators ?: = += -= *= /= %= R to L R to L CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . -> expr++ expr-operators Unary operators Binary operators * & + .18 .5 Evaluation of Boolean Expressions (2/2)  Precedence Operator Type Operator Associativity L to R R to L L to R Primary expression ( ) [ ] .

as the result will always be false. skip evaluating expr2. as the result will always be true. .  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .6 Short-circuit Evaluation  Does the following code give an error if a is zero? if ((a != 0) && (b/a > 3)) printf(. skip evaluating expr2.).19 . .3.  Short-circuit evaluation uses the following facts:  expr1 || expr2 : If expr1 is true. expr1 && expr2: If expr1 is false.

} if (cond) { statements.4. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . } else { statements. } else { statements. } if (cond) { statements. }  Not acceptable if (cond) { statements. } if (cond) { statements.20 . } else No indentation! { statements. } else { statements. } Closing braces not aligned with if/else keyword. Indentation Style  Acceptable if (cond) { statements. } else { statements.

5. Quiz (1/2)  Match each condition in (A) to its equivalent condition in (B). Week4 . They are not considered convoluted.21 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) . Assume that a is an int variable. A if (a == 0) { … } if (a != 0) { … } B if (a) { … } if (!a) { … }   Codes in (B) are very frequently encountered in C programming.

 Assuming that a.5. Quiz (2/2)  What is the output of the following code? if (x <= y) printf("Line 1\n").22 . is the following condition correct? Why? if (a > b > c) If it is wrong. printf("Line 2\n"). printf("Line 3\n"). how can you correct it?   CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . b and c are int variables.

6.) CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . larger than. Demo #1: Hi-Lo Game  User to guess a secret jackpot number (between 1 and 10). etc. or equal to the jackpot. Analysis     Inputs: jackpot number. Program responses according to whether user‟s guess is smaller than. your guess Outputs: appropriate messages (“too high”. “too low”.23 .

scanf("%d". if (guess == jackpot) printf("You hit the JACKPOT!\n").h> int main(void) { int guess.\n"). We need random number (you‟ll learn that in discussion session.) Can we change the 3 „if‟ statements into a single nested „if-else‟ statement? Week4 . if (guess > jackpot) printf("Sorry. your guess is too high. if (guess < jackpot) printf("Sorry. jackpot = 8. Week4_HiLo_v1.6. your guess is too low. return 0. Demo #1: Hi-Lo Game (version 1) // Hi-Lo Game version 1 #include <stdio.c printf("Guess the jackpot number between 1 and 10!\n").24 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) . }   Jackpot is fixed to 8! No fun. &guess).\n"). printf("Please type your guess: ").

25 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) . jackpot = 8.\n"). return 0. &guess). else printf("You hit the JACKPOT!\n").6. printf("Please type your guess: ").\n"). scanf("%d". Demo #1: Hi-Lo Game (version 2) // Hi-Lo Game version 2 #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { int guess.c printf("Guess the jackpot number between 1 and 10!\n"). if (guess < jackpot) printf("Sorry. your guess is too high. Week4_HiLo_v2. else if (guess > jackpot) printf("Sorry. your guess is too low. }  Is this single nested „if-else‟ statement better than 3 „if‟ statements? Why? Week4 .

else if (marks >= 50) printf("Grade D\n"). but for such cases the code tends to be long and skew to the right. Example:   // marks is an int variable if (marks >= 90) printf("Grade A\n").7.26 . else if (marks >= 75) printf("Grade B\n"). Indentation Style Again (1/2)  Week4_HiLo_v2. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) This follows the indentation guideline. else if (marks >= 60) printf("Grade C\n"). else printf("Grade F\n").c shows a simple case of a frequently encountered selection structure: if-else-if. Week4 .

else if (marks >= 75) printf("Grade B\n"). else if (marks >= 60) printf("Grade C\n"). else if (marks >= 50) printf("Grade D\n").27 . else printf("Grade F\n").7. else if (marks >= 50) printf("Grade D\n"). CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) // marks is an int variable if (marks >= 90) printf("Grade A\n"). else printf("Grade F\n"). Indentation Style Again (2/2)  Alternative (and preferred) indentation style for the ifelse-if structure is shown on the right // marks is an int variable if (marks >= 90) printf("Grade A\n"). else if (marks >= 75) printf("Grade B\n"). Week4 . else if (marks >= 60) printf("Grade C\n").

or 0 (false) otherwise Input: a 4-digit positive integer Output: “xxxx is a leap year” or “xxxx is not a leap year” where xxxx is the year Year is a leap year if it is divisible by 4 but not by 100. or … It is divisible by 400 Week4 .  It should have a function int isLeapYear(int) with the year as the parameter and returns 1 (true) if it is a leap year.c to determine whether a year is a leap year. Exercise #1: Leap Year (1/2)  Problem: Write a modular program Week4_LeapYear.28  Analysis:    Design:   CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) .8.

8.29 . Exercise #1: Leap Year (2/2)  Are these leap years?      1997 2002 1996 2000 1900    2100 2400 2300  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .

30 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) .9. can we change the 3 independent ‘if’ statement to a nested ‘if-else’ statement? Week4 .  Version #1 Week4_FindMax_v1. if ((num3 > num1) && (num3 > num2)) max = num3.c int getMax(int num1. Demo #2: Maximum of 3 Numbers (1/2)  Problem: Find the maximum among 3 integer values. }  After correcting the error. int num2.  Spot the error. int num3) { int max = 0. if ((num2 > num1) && (num2 > num3)) max = num2. return max. if ((num1 > num2) && (num1 > num3)) max = num1.

if (num1 > max) max = num1. return max. else if (num2 > max) max = num2. else if (num3 > max) max = num3. int num3) { int max = 0.c int getMax(int num1. } CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . int num2.  Spot the error. Demo #2: Maximum of 3 Numbers (2/2)  Another version: Week4_FindMax_v2.31 .9.

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . else printf("a is not larger than 10\n"). One is caught by the compiler but the other is not (which make it very hard to detect). Spot the errors. printf("Next line\n”). printf("Next line\n”). if (a > 10). Very Common Errors  The code fragments below contain some very common errors. if (a > 10). printf("a is larger than 10\n").10. int a = 3. printf("a is larger than 10\n").32 . int a = 3.

CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . If it is a weekend. For example    If it is a weekday. do revision from 6 pm to 12 midnight. and sleep from 12 midnight to 8 am. you will be in school from 8 am to 6 pm. Nested if and if-else Statements  Nested if (if-else) structures refer to the containment of an if (if-else) structure within another if (if-else) structure.11.33 . then you will sleep from 12 midnight to 10 am and have fun from 10 am to 12 midnight.

12. int boardTime. in metres float computeFare(int dayType. boardMin: the hour and minute the passengers board the taxi (eg: 14 27 if the passengers board the taxi at 2:27 PM) distance: the distance of the journey. Exercise #2: Taxi Fare (1/4)   The taxi fare structure in Singapore must be one of the most complex in the world! See http://www. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .34 .taxisingapore. int distance)  Your program should have a function  The parameter boardTime is converted from the input data boardHour and boardMin. It is the number of minutes since 0:00hr. then boardTime is 867. 1 represents weekdays and non-PH boardHour.  Eg: If boardHour and boardMin are 14 and 27 respectively.c that reads the following input data (all are of int type) from the user. and computes the taxi fare:    dayType: 0 represents weekends and public holidays (PH for short).com/taxi-fare/ Write a program Week4_TaxiFare.

35 .22  Surcharge (applicable at the time of boarding): Midnight charge (12am – 5:59am) 50% of metered fare 50% of metered fare Peak hour charge (6am – 9:29am) None Peak hour charge (6pm – 11:59pm) 25% of metered fare dayType 0: Weekends & PH 1: Weekdays and non-PH 25% of metered fare 25% of metered fare CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .22 \$0. Exercise #2: Taxi Fare (2/4)  To implement the actual taxi fare could be a PE question .2km Every 350m thereafter or less after 10.40 \$0.2km \$3.12. we use a (grossly) simplified fare structure:  Basic Fare: Flag-down (inclusive of 1st km or less) Every 400m thereafter or less up to 10. In this exercise.

83 First 1km: \$3.26 = \$1.12 No surcharge Total fare = \$9.22 = \$0.22 = \$2.26 Surcharge = 25%  \$6.40 Basic fare = \$7. Complete the program.86 Basic fare = \$6.70 First 1km: \$3.90 Total fare = \$11. Exercise #2: Taxi Fare (3/4)   You are given an incomplete program Week4_TaxiFarePartial.22 = \$4.57 Total fare = \$7.12 First 1km: \$3.80 Surcharge = 50%  \$7.66 Basic fare = \$9.2km: 23  \$0. This exercise is mounted on CodeCrunch.40 Next 9. Sample runs below for your checking Day type: 0 Boarding hour and minute: 14 27 Distance: 10950 Total taxi fare is \$9.83 Day type: 1 Boarding hour and minute: 5 59 Distance: 9000 Total taxi fare is \$11.70 Week4 .c.40 Next 8km: 20  \$0.12 Day type: 1 Boarding hour and minute: 9 20 Distance: 6123 Total taxi fare is \$7.12.22 = \$5.36 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) .80 = \$3.06 Next 750m: 3\$0.40 Next 5123m: 13  \$0.

In this case. Exercise #2: Taxi Fare (4/4)  Note that due to inaccuracy of floating-point number representation. depending on how you code your formula to compute the taxi fare.  CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . if the difference is very small (probably in the second decimal place). just treat your answer as correct.12. the result may defer slightly from the model output CodeCrunch refers to. your program may fail CodeCrunch test.37 . Hence.

switch Statement   An alternative to if-else-if (section 7) is to use the switch statement. } if <variable> == value1 if <variable> == value2 if <variable> does not equal the any of the cases Restriction: variable must be of discrete type (eg: int..13. . Syntax: switch ( <variable> ) { case value1: Code to execute break. case value2: Code to execute break. char).38 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) .. default: Code to execute value following break. Week4 .

the South. 2. invalid ZIP Code. the West.39 .  Note: <zip> represents the entered ZIP Code value. 3 4–6 7 8–9 other print this message <zip> is <zip> is <zip> is <zip> is <zip> is on in in in an the East Coast. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . Demo #3: ZIP Code Reader (1/2)  Write a program that reads in a ZIP Code and uses the first digit to print the associated geographic area: if zip code begins with 0.14. the Central Plains area.

\n". case 7: printf("%d is in the South. zip). Demo #3: ZIP Code Reader (2/2) #include <stdio. zip).40 Week4_ZipCode. break.h> int main(void) { int zip. printf("Enter a 6-digit ZIP code: "). break.c . zip). switch (zip/100000) { case 0: case 2: case 3: printf("%06d is on the East Coast. case 4: case 5: case 6: printf("%d is in the Central Plains.\n". case 8: case 9: printf("%d is in the West.\n". scanf("%d". break. zip).14.\n".\n". default: printf("%d is an invalid ZIP code. } // end switch return 0. zip). break. } CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . &zip).

7.5.3.41 .4.  Eg: 104 % 11 = 5 CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .  Eg: 82 + 77 + 36 + 05 + 24 + 13 + 52 = 16+49+18+0+8+3+10 = 104  Step 2: Divide step 1 result by 11 to obtain the remainder.15. Exercise #3: NRIC Check Code (1/4)  Algorithm for NRIC check code  NRIC consists of 7 digits.  Eg: 8730215  Step 1: Multiply the digits with corresponding weights 2.2 and add them up.6.

Exercise #3: NRIC Check Code (2/4)  Algorithm for NRIC check code (cont…)  Step 3: Subtract step 2 result from 11  Eg: 11 – 5 = 6  Step 4: Match step 3 result in this table for the check code 1 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 E 6 F 7 G 8 H 9 I 10 11 Z J  Eg: The check code corresponding to 6 is „F‟.  Therefore. the check code for 8730215 is „F‟.15.  Sample run: CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Enter 7-digit NRIC number: 8730215 Check code is F Week4 .42 .

'Z'). Your program may be long now. This exercise is mounted on CodeCrunch.  The format specifier for char type is %c (to be used in a printf() statement). Exercise #3: NRIC Check Code (3/4)  Write a program Week4_NRIC.43    CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) .  You need to use the char type. You can write an improved version later.c to generate the check code given  a 7-digit NRIC number. Do not use techniques that are not covered in class.15.)  A character constant is enclosed in single quotes (eg: 'A'. Your program should include a function char generateCode(int) that takes in a single integer (the NRIC number) and returns a character (which is the check code). (Explore this on your own. Week4 . This is your take-home exercise. such as array.

15.  We want to limit the technique to what we have covered in this week‟s lecture. Please do not do the following (especially for students who are more experienced in programming):  use string (array of characters) and extract out the individual  digit characters and convert each of them into a numeric digit. CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .44 . we want to use an approach that is more “portable”. Exercise #3: NRIC Check Code (4/4)  The intention of this exercise is to let you handle a single integer input (assigned to an integer variable) and then extract the 7 individual digits from it. or  use %1d%1d%1d%1d%1d%1d%1d in the scanf() statement to read in 7 digits separately into 7 variables. and also. The %1d method may not be possible in some other programming languages.

45 .Summary for Today  Today‟s most important lessons   if and if-else statements switch statement CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 .

Announcements/Things-to-do  Revise Chapter 4 Lessons 4.1 (pg 176 – 179) and 4. Saturday.7 (pg 191 – 193)   A few practical exercises (besides Exercises #2 and #3.1 – 4. 9am Next week is e-learning week  No lecture  Please view videos (details will be anounced later)   CS1010 (AY2013/4 Semester 1) Week4 . and simpler than these two) on Selection statements are on CodeCrunch Lab #2 has been released  Deadline: 14th September 2013.6. Beginning Decision Making Read Application Programs 4.46 .

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