This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Explain the main reasons for cementing wells Describe slurry properties that must be controlled Describe slurry thickening time Explain API classes of cement commonly used Explain various cement additives and their function Describe methods of evaluating a cement job
Introduction to Drilling
Reasons for cementing Achieve Zonal Isolation Provide Casing Support Protect Casing Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 3 .
Reasons for cementing Casing Support Zonal Isolation Properly cemented casing prevents communication between zones of differing characteristics to enable drilling deeper Low pressure loss zone Casing bonded with formation rocks supports its own weight and load of surface equipment that is mounted on it Cement Casing Protection Casing Higher pressure permeable zone Some formations contain fluids that can attack casing Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 4 .
Slurry Design Density Solids/water ratio Thickening Time Fluid Loss Free Water Rheology Compressive Strength Future? Tensile Strength Young’s Modulus Poisson’s Ratio Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 5 .
0 ppg Spacer 12.5 ppg Lead Slurry 13.8 ppg Casing Shoe 6 .0 ppg ** When pumping “normal” circulation. not reverse circulation Example Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing Tail Slurry 15.Slurry Density Hierarchy Spacer at least one-half ppg heavier than mud Lead slurry at least onehalf ppg heavier than the spacer Tail slurry always heavier than the lead slurry Mud to surface 12.
Pressurized Mud Balance Eliminates the effect of air in the cement slurry Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 7 .
Slurry Thickening Time The time available to place a slurry before it becomes too thick to pump. Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 8 .
Thickening Time Test Consistometers are used to measure the thickening trend of a slurry under simulated conditions of temperature and pressure Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 9 .
Consistometer Slurry Cup Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 10 .
slurry is static when set occurs. In actual well. pump. is generally preferred. displace) plus a reasonable safety factor such as 1 to 2 hours.Thickening Time Requirements The thickening time should equal job time (mix. not continuously sheared until set as in consistometer. A slurry exhibiting a “right-angle set” rather than a “gel set”. Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 11 .
000 ft.000 ft.000 ft. Class G is commonly used in California and Rocky Mountains and overseas. intended for use from surface to 6. Class B: Sulfate resistant. to 16. to 14.000 ft Class G & H: Intended for use as a basic cement from surface to 8. Class F: Intended for use from 10. and Class H in Oklahoma and Texas as well as the Gulf Coast.000 ft. Class C: High early strength. as manufactured.000 ft. or can be used for a wide range of well depths and temperatures with suitable additives.000 ft.000 ft.000 ft. Class E: Intended for use from 10. to 10. intended for use from surface to 6.API Classification for Oil Well Cements Class A: Ordinary cement intended for use from surface to 6. Class D: Intended for use from 6. Manufacture and testing conforms to API Specification 10 Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 12 .000 ft.
Cement Slurry Additives ACCELERATORS: To shorten the thickening time RETARDERS: To lengthen the thickening time EXTENDERS: To lighten slurry density DENSIFIERS: To increase slurry density FLUID LOSS CONTROL: To reduce loss of filtrate into formation FRICTION REDUCERS: To improve flow properties HIGH TEMPERATURE: To prevent the cement from losing strength under high temperature conditions over time Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 13 .
Conventional Primary Cementing Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 14 .
Good Cementing Practices Casing Movement Centralizers Scratchers and Wipers Casing Wiper Plugs Two Floats Adequate Shoe Joint Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 15 .
Centralizers Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 16 .
Centralizers Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 17 .
Can cause micro-annuli Casing Use a float shoe and a float collar for redundancy. Float Collar Float Shoe Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 18 .Two Floats Float failure means pressure must be held on the casing until the cement sets.
Adequate shoe joint The length of casing between the float collar and float shoe.more in larger casing Shoe Track ± 80’ Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 19 . Also called the “shoe track” The purpose of the shoe joint to to contain contaminated or lightweight cement Use at least two joints .
USIT Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing 20 . SBT etc. Ultrasonic Tools: CET.Evaluating the Job Temperature Survey Leak-off Test Bond Logs Sonic Tools: CBL. CBT. PET.