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WELL CEMENTING

Learning Objectives

Explain the main reasons for cementing wells Describe slurry properties that must be controlled Describe slurry thickening time Explain API classes of cement commonly used Explain various cement additives and their function Describe methods of evaluating a cement job

Introduction to Drilling

Well Cementing

Reasons for cementing

Achieve Zonal Isolation

Provide Casing Support

Protect Casing

Introduction to Drilling

Well Cementing

Reasons for cementing


Casing Support Zonal Isolation
Properly cemented casing prevents communication between zones of differing characteristics to enable drilling deeper
Low pressure loss zone

Casing bonded with formation rocks supports its own weight and load of surface equipment that is mounted on it
Cement

Casing Protection
Casing

Higher pressure permeable zone

Some formations contain fluids that can attack casing

Introduction to Drilling

Well Cementing

Slurry Design
Density
Solids/water ratio

Thickening Time Fluid Loss Free Water Rheology Compressive Strength Future?
Tensile Strength Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio

Introduction to Drilling

Well Cementing

Slurry Density Hierarchy

Spacer at least one-half ppg heavier than mud Lead slurry at least onehalf ppg heavier than the spacer Tail slurry always heavier than the lead slurry

Mud to surface 12.0 ppg Spacer 12.5 ppg Lead Slurry 13.0 ppg

** When pumping normal


circulation, not reverse circulation
Example
Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing

Tail Slurry 15.8 ppg

Casing Shoe

Pressurized Mud Balance

Eliminates the effect of air in the cement slurry


Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing

Slurry Thickening Time

The time available to place a slurry before it becomes too thick to pump.

Introduction to Drilling

Well Cementing

Thickening Time Test

Consistometers are used to measure the thickening trend of a slurry under simulated conditions of temperature and pressure
Introduction to Drilling Well Cementing

Consistometer Slurry Cup

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Thickening Time Requirements

The thickening time should equal job time (mix, pump, displace) plus a reasonable safety factor such as 1 to 2 hours. A slurry exhibiting a right-angle set rather than a gel set, is generally preferred.
In actual well, slurry is static when set occurs, not continuously sheared until set as in consistometer.

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API Classification for Oil Well Cements


Class A: Ordinary cement intended for use from surface to 6,000 ft. Class B: Sulfate resistant, intended for use from surface to 6,000 ft. Class C: High early strength, intended for use from surface to 6,000 ft. Class D: Intended for use from 6,000 ft. to 10,000 ft. Class E: Intended for use from 10,000 ft. to 14,000 ft. Class F: Intended for use from 10,000 ft. to 16,000 ft Class G & H: Intended for use as a basic cement from surface to 8,000 ft. as manufactured, or can be used for a wide range of well depths and temperatures with suitable additives. Class G is commonly used in California and Rocky Mountains and overseas, and Class H in Oklahoma and Texas as well as the Gulf Coast.

Manufacture and testing conforms to API Specification 10

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Cement Slurry Additives


ACCELERATORS: To shorten the thickening time RETARDERS: To lengthen the thickening time EXTENDERS: To lighten slurry density DENSIFIERS: To increase slurry density

FLUID LOSS CONTROL: To reduce loss of filtrate into formation FRICTION REDUCERS: To improve flow properties HIGH TEMPERATURE: To prevent the cement from losing strength under high temperature conditions over time

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Conventional Primary Cementing

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Good Cementing Practices


Casing Movement Centralizers Scratchers and Wipers Casing Wiper Plugs Two Floats Adequate Shoe Joint

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Centralizers

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Centralizers

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Two Floats

Float failure means pressure must be held on the casing until the cement sets.
Can cause micro-annuli

Casing

Use a float shoe and a float collar for redundancy.

Float Collar

Float Shoe

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Adequate shoe joint

The length of casing between the float collar and float shoe. Also called the shoe track The purpose of the shoe joint to to contain contaminated or lightweight cement Use at least two joints - more in larger casing

Shoe Track 80

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Evaluating the Job

Temperature Survey Leak-off Test Bond Logs Sonic Tools: CBL, CBT, SBT etc. Ultrasonic Tools: CET, PET, USIT

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