Ultrasonic Testing

Topics to be covered
• • • • • • • • Fundaments of ultrasonic Basic equipment’s Types of ultrasonic waves Types of testing Calibration of UT equipment’s UT of welds Defect location Disadvantage of UT

WHAT IS ULTRASONIC WAVE?

It is a sound waves.

Frequency more than 20,000Hertz
 Which cannot be heard by human ear.

BASIC APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASONICS

Ultrasonic is used to test welds, forgings, castings, sheet, tubing, plastics and ceramics. Ultrasonic has as advantage of detecting volumetric discontinuities  Access to only one side of the specimen. Angular & planar discontinuities can be detected. Depth and width of discontinuity can be located.

TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION  Technician and supervisor be qualified in the ultrasonic method before the technique is used and test result evaluated. III. SNT -TC-1A". There are three levels of certification for NDT personal LEVEL I. . II. The AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING recommends the use of their document " RECOMMENDED PRACTICE NO.

they can travel in metal as well as in air and water.  By Ultrasonic testing we can determine material soundness.  This ultrasonic vibrations are sound waves. thickness or some physical property.  Vibration propagate through particle displacement in the material.  The structure of a material is actually many particles or groups of atoms. .ULTRASONIC PRINCIPLES  In ultrasonic testing we use something called "ULTRASONIC VIBRATIONS".

Ultrasonic Basic Principle .

Piezo-electric Effect .

.ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT The ultrasonic pulse echo instrument generates high voltage electrical pulses of short duration. which are amplified and displayed on the CRT as vertical pulses.  Sound waves are reflected from the front surface & back surface of material to the transducer. The sound reflected back to the transducer is converted back to electrical pulses. Some waves are reflected back from discontinuities.  These pulses are applied to the transducers which converts them into mechanical vibrations that are applied to the material being inspected.

Ultrasonic System .

A.Scan display It displays time taken versus amplitude of waves It is read from left to right .

A-Scan Presentation .

TYPES OF ULTRASONIC WAVES – Ultrasonic vibrations travel in many modes and the most common are  Longitudinal waves ( compression waves)  Transverse waves ( shear waves )  Surface waves (Raleigh waves )  Plate waves (Lamb waves) .

Longitudinal waves .

Transverse wave .

Surface waves .

Plate waves .

with a Piezoelectric crystal mounted on a plastic wedge. The ultrasonic waves are generated when high pulsed electrical energy is applied to the crystal. .TRANSDUCER OR PROBE: The probe is made of plastic material. The crystal converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations and vice versa.

Normal Beam Probe .

• Normal probe generates longitudinal waves and they travel in a straight path. One crystal is meant for producing ultrasonic waves and other is meant for receiving the ultrasonic waves. • Angle probe generates transverse waves and it travels at the specified angle in the material.  ANGLE PROBE &  TWIN PROBE . 70) • Twin probes contains two crystals mounted on different wedge. 60.(Angle probes are available in 45.TYPES OF TRANSDUCER OR PROBE • TYPES OF TRANSDUCER OR PROBE  Classification of probes are based on the nature of ultrasonic waves passing through the material. .  NORMAL PROBE .

BASIC TEST METHODS There are two test methods normally used. • Contact testing : The transducer is coupled to the material through a thin layer of couplant. . • Immersion testing : The material and the probe are immersed in a tank of couplant normally water.

Contact testing .

Immersion testing .

 Couplant aids in the movement of the probe over the surface in contact. oil.  Couplant fills in and smoothes out irregularities on the surface of the test part. • Commonly used couplants are crease. if the couplant is excessive it may alter the direction of the sound. .COUPLANT IN ULTRASONIC TESTING:  The primary purpose of a couplant is to provide a suitable sound path between the probe and test surface  Since air is a poor conductor of sound. glycerin. couplant excludes all air between probe and test surface. and paper paste. In all cases the couplant should be thin as possible .

Rough surfaces can cause undesirable effects such as reduction in amplitudes of discontinuities due to distortion of wave directivity The surface should be probably smooth and it should be cleaned prior to testing. .SURFACE PREPARATION The surface of a test specimen can greatly affect ultrasonic wave propagation.

Surface Preparation .

This blocks are used for verification of known distances. beam exit point.  Checks transducer resolution. angular relationship.CALIBRATION BLOCK International institute of welding provides two types blocks for calibrating the flaw detector IIW V1& V2 block. .

IIW V1 Calibration block .

IIW V2 calibration block .

.  The probe is moved back and forth until the amplitude of wave reaches maximum refer figure.BEAM EXIT POINT CALIBRATION In contact beam testing the beam exit point of probe must be known to accurately determine the location of discontinuity.

Beam exit point calibration .

So the verification can be done with v2 block refer fig.VERIFICATION OF BEAM ANGLE The plastic wedge of the angle beam probe is subjected to wear and tear in normal use This wear can change the beam exit point and angle of the sound beam. .

Angle probe angle verification .

.  It can be verified by v1 block refer fig.VERIFICATION OF RESOLVING POWER  It is the capacity of equipment to identify reflected ultrasonic waves from close defects.

Probe resolving power .

. it is % of amplitude.HOW TO SCALE THE CRT SCREEN ?  It is an A-Scan display  It is Time taken v/s Amplitude of received wave.  Now fix the value for this horizontal divisions.  Horizontally it has 10major division and with 5minor division in each major division.  Minimum it should be two times the job thickness.  Vertically it has 5major divisions .

CRT screen display .

• To scan the weld the probe is moved in forward and backward refer fig. • Surface should be ground smooth. • Lack of fusion. and IP cannot be easily detected. 60. cracks. 70 probes. ANGLE BEAM METHOD • It is done with angle 45. .ULTRASONIC TESTING OF WELDS STRAIGHT BEAM METHOD • It is done with normal beam probe.

Straight beam testing of welds .

Angle beam testing .

Angle Beam Weld Inspection .

Angle beam inspection of weld • YOU SHOULD KNNOW ABOUT THE FOLLOWING • BEAM PATH : It is path in which beam travels in material It is divided into many legs .

 Second leg beam path is know as full skip distance. .Skip distance • SKIP DISTANCE: It is surface distance of the beam path.  First leg beam path surface distance is known as half skip distance.

Calculation Half skip distance = T X tan Full skip distance = 2 X half skip distance Half beam bath = T / cos Full beam path = 2 X half beam path • Where  = probe angle. • T= job thicknes .

Beam path .

SURFACE DISTANCE = Beam path X sin DEPTH = Beam path X cos   = probe angle.Defect location To locate a defect you should know Surface distance of the defect from the probe index point  Depth of defect. .

Defect location .

NADAR .S.S.

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