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Pendahuluan
Mekanika Fluida - TF 2204
CFD EFD AFD
2
0
1
Re
i j
D
p u u
Dt
V- =
= V + V +V-
U
U
U
Dr. Suprijanto ST MT
email : supri@tf.itb.ac.id

Analytic Experiment Computational
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THE DOs AND THE DONTs
THE DO-s
Kerjakanlah pekerjaan rumah sebaik-baiknya karena
sumbangannya terhadap nilai akhir cukup besar.
Pekerjaan rumah dapat dikerjakan bersama-sama namun
jangan hanya sekedar menyalin pekerjaan kawan;
pahamilah solusi setiap pekerjaan rumah karena dengan
itu sekurang-kurangnya Anda telah belajar memahami
perkuliahan ini.

Peraturan umum mengenai kehadiran di kelas wajib
dipatuhi.
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THE DOs AND THE DONTs
THE DONT-s
menggunakan telepon genggam (HP) di dalam
kelas; pelanggaran terhadap hal ini dikenakan
denda : Rp 100.000,- dan dana terkumpul akan
menjadi milik seluruh peserta kelas.
menggunakan sandal selama mengikuti
perkuliahan ini.
hadir lebih lambat dari dosen.
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Penilaian
Mid Term Test/Quizes ? %
Final Term Test ? %
Home Work/Take Home ? %
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Pustaka
Fox and McDonald, P.J. Pritchard, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley, 2004
S.W. Yuan, Foundation of Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall,
3 SKS BERARTI AKTIVITAS PER MINGGU TERDIRI DARI :
PER MINGGU:1 JAM TATAP MUKA
1 JAM KEGIATAN TERSTRUKTUR : HOME WORK, TAKE HOME TEST
1 JAM KEGIATAN MANDIRI : MEMBACA LITERATUR

BERARTI : 3 SKS --> BEBAN DILUAR KELAS 6 JAM PER MINGGU !

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Satuan Acara Perkuliahan
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Satuan Acara Perkuliahan
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Fluid Mechanics
Fluids essential to life
Human body 65% water
Earths surface is 2/3 water
Atmosphere extends 17km above the earths surface
Affects every part of our lives
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History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics
Archimedes
(C. 287-212 BC)
Newton
(1642-1727)
Leibniz
(1646-1716)
Euler
(1707-1783)
Navier
(1785-1836)
Stokes
(1819-1903)
Reynolds
(1842-1912)
Prandtl
(1875-1953)
Bernoulli
(1667-1748)
Taylor
(1886-1975)
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Relevansi Mekanika Fluida dalam kehidupan
Kehadiran fluida
Cuaca dan musim
Sistem Transportasi: mobil, KA, kapal,
pesawat terbang
Lingkungan
Physiology dan kedokteran
Olah raga
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Cuaca dan Musim
Tornadoes
Hurricanes Global Climate
Thunderstorm
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Kendaraan
Pesawat terbang
Kapal selam
KA kecept. tinggi
Kapal laut
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Lingkungan
Polusi udara
Sungai
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Warmed
Filtered
Moisturized
Jutaan kantung
aveoli
Medik
Trachea
bercabang dua
pada
bronchusdibagi
sekitar 15 bagian
berakhir pada
bronchioles
yang mengirimkan
udara pada jutaan
kantung kecil yang
disebut Alveoli
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Medik
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Olah raga
Water sports
Auto racing
Offshore racing Cycling
Surfing
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Fluids Engineering
Reality
Fluids Engineering System Components Idealized
EFD Mathematical Physics Problem Formulation
AFD

CFD,
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Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD)
Teori formulasi masalah fisika matematik
Control volume & differential analysis
Solusi eksak untuk kondisi dan geometri sederhana
Solusi aproksimasi pada aplikasi praktis
Linear
Hubungan empiris dengan menggunakan data EFD
(eng. Fluid dynamics)
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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
Pokok bahasan
Definisi dan sifat-sifat fluida
Statika fluida
Gerak fluida
Kontinuitas, momentum, dan prinsip energy
Analisis dimensional dan keserupaan
Tahanan permukaan
Aliran dalam conduits
Hambatan dan gaya angkat

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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
Schematic
Contoh: aliran laminar pada pipa
Solusi pasti :
2 2
1
( ) ( )( )
4
p
u r R r
x
c
=
c
Faktor gesekan:
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8
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Re 2 2
w
du
dy
w
f
V V

t

= = =
Asumsi: Fully developed, Low
Pendekatan: Penyederhanaan pers
momentum, integrasi, penerapan syarat
batas untuk menentukan konstanta integrasi
dan menggunakan pers energi untuk
menghitung head loss
x
g
y
u
x
u
x
p
Dt
Du
+
(

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
2
2
2
2

Head loss:
1 2
1 2 f
p p
z z h

+ = + +
2
2
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2
f
L V LV
h f
D g D

= =
UD
2000 Re

<

=
0
0
0
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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
Contoh: aliran turbulent flow pada pipa smooth (
)
0 5 y
+
< <
1
ln u y B
k
+ +
= +
5
20 10 y
+
< <
*
0
1
U u r
f
u r
| |
=
|
\ .
5
10 y
+
>
u y
+ +
=
( ) ( )
*
0
*
1
ln
u r r r u
B
u k v

= +
Re 3000 >
*
y yu v
+
=
*
u u u
+
=
*
w
u t =
Three layer concept (using dimensional analysis)


1. Laminar sub-layer (viscous shear dominates)


2. Overlap layer (viscous and turbulent shear important)



3. Outer layer (turbulent shear dominates)

Assume log-law is valid across entire pipe:
Integration for average velocity and using EFD data to adjust constants:
( )
1 2
1
2log Re .8 f
f
=
(k=0.41, B=5.5)
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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
Example: turbulent flow in rough pipe
( )
u u y k
+ +
=
1
ln
y
u
k k
+
= +
1
2log
3.7
k D
f
= ( )
1
ln 8.5 Re
y
u f
k k
+
= + =
Three regimes of flow depending on k
+

1. K
+
<5, hydraulically smooth (no effect of roughness)
2. 5 < K
+
< 70, transitional roughness (Re dependent)
3. K
+
> 70, fully rough (independent Re)

Both laminar sublayer and overlap layer
are affected by roughness
Inner layer:

Outer layer: unaffected

Overlap layer:

Friction factor:
For 3, using EFD data to adjust constants:
constant
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Analytical Fluid Dynamics
Example: Moody diagram for turbulent pipe flow
1 1 2
2
1 2.51
2log
3.7 Re
k D
f
f
(
= +
(

Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes is given by the Moody diagram:
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Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD)

Definition:
Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids
engineering systems, including full and model scales, large and table
top facilities, measurement systems (instrumentation, data acquisition
and data reduction), uncertainty analysis, and dimensional analysis and
similarity.

EFD philosophy:
Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the
expected test outcome, to achieve the test objectives within allowable
uncertainties.
Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire
experimental program
test design
determination of error sources
estimation of uncertainty
documentation of the results



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Purpose

Science & Technology: understand and investigate a
phenomenon/process, substantiate and validate a theory
(hypothesis)
Research & Development: document a process/system,
provide benchmark data (standard procedures,
validations), calibrate instruments, equipment, and
facilities
Industry: design optimization and analysis, provide data
for direct use, product liability, and acceptance
Teaching: instruction/demonstration
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Applications of EFD
Application in research & development

Tropic Wind Tunnel has the ability to create
temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees
Fahrenheit and simulate rain

Application in science & technology

Picture of Karman vortex shedding
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Applications of EFD (contd)
Example of industrial application

NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight
conditions for scale models--a critical tool in
designing airplanes.
Application in teaching

Fluid dynamics laboratory
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Full and model scale
Scales: model, and full-scale
Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity
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Measurement systems
Instrumentation
Load cell to measure forces and moments
Pressure transducers
Pitot tubes
Hotwire anemometry
PIV, LDV
Data acquisition
Serial port devices
Desktop PCs
Plug-in data acquisition boards
Data Acquisition software - Labview
Data analysis and data reduction
Data reduction equations
Spectral analysis
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Instrumentation
Load cell
Pitot tube
Hotwire
3D - PIV
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Data acquisition system
Hardware
Software - Labview
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Dimensional analysis
Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in
in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters.
Why is it used :
Reduction in variables ( If F(A1, A2, , An) = 0, then f(H1, H2, Hr < n) = 0,
where, F = functional form, Ai = dimensional variables, Hj = non-dimensional
parameters, m = number of important dimensions, n = number of dimensional variables, r
= n m ). Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. F is reduced.
Helps in understanding physics
Useful in data analysis and modeling
Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties

Example
Vortex shedding behind cylinder
Drag = f(V, L, r, m, c, t, e, T, etc.)
From dimensional analysis,
Examples of dimensionless quantities : Reynolds number, Froude
Number, Strouhal number, Euler number, etc.
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EFD hands on experience
Lab1: Measurement of density and
kinematic viscosity of a fluid
Lab2: Measurement of
flow rate, friction factor and
velocity profiles in smooth and
rough pipes.
Lab3: Measurement of surface pressure
Distribution, lift and drag coefficient for an airfoil
To
Scanivalve
Chord-wise
Pressure
Taps
Tygon
Tubing
Load Cell
Load Cell L
D
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFD is use of computational methods for
solving fluid engineering systems, including
modeling (mathematical & Physics) and
numerical methods (solvers, finite differences,
and grid generations, etc.).
Rapid growth in CFD technology since advent
of computer




ENIAC 1, 1946 IBM WorkStation
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Purpose
The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids
with Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and
discretize PDEs into an algebra problem, solve it,
validate it and achieve simulation based design
instead of build & test

Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are
difficult to be measured by experiments: scale
simulations (full-scale ships, airplanes), hazards
(explosions,radiations,pollution), physics (weather
prediction, planetary boundary layer, stellar
evolution).

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Modeling
Mathematical physics problem formulation of fluid
engineering system
Governing equations: Navier-Stokes equations (momentum),
continuity equation, pressure Poisson equation, energy
equation, ideal gas law, combustions (chemical reaction
equation), multi-phase flows(e.g. Rayleigh equation), and
turbulent models (RANS, LES, DES).
Coordinates: Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates
result in different form of governing equations
Initial conditions(initial guess of the solution) and Boundary
Conditions (no-slip wall, free-surface, zero-gradient,
symmetry, velocity/pressure inlet/outlet)
Flow conditions: Geometry approximation, domain, Reynolds
Number, and Mach Number, etc.

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Modeling (examples)
Free surface animation for ship in
regular waves
Developing flame surface (Bell et al., 2001)
Evolution of a 2D mixing layer laden with particles of Stokes
Number 0.3 with respect to the vortex time scale (C.Narayanan)
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Modeling (examples, contd)
3D vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder
(Re=100,DNS,J.Dijkstra)

DES,
Re=10
5
, Iso-
surface of Q
criterion (0.4)
for turbulent
flow around
NACA12 with
angle of attack
60 degrees
LES of a turbulent jet. Back wall shows a slice of the dissipation rate and the
bottom wall shows a carpet plot of the mixture fraction in a slice through the jet
centerline, Re=21,000 (D. Glaze).
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Numerical methods
Finite difference methods:
using numerical scheme to
approximate the exact derivatives
in the PDEs




Finite volume methods
Grid generation: conformal
mapping, algebraic methods and
differential equation methods
Grid types: structured,
unstructured
Solvers: direct methods (Cramers
rule, Gauss elimination, LU
decomposition) and iterative
methods (Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel,
SOR)
Slice of 3D mesh of a fighter aircraft
o
x
y
i i+1 i-1
j+1
j
j-1
imax
jmax
x A
y A
2
1 1
2 2
2
i i i
P P P P
x x
+
+ c
=
c A
2
1 1
2 2
2
j j j
P P P
P
y y
+
+
c
=
c A