MIS Notes | Computing | Technology

The information is the blood and MIS is the heart In organization.


Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, and organizations.

• A management information system (MIS) provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively.

implement. • MIS combines computer technology with management decision-making methods . quantitative techniques.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM • The field of management information systems involves applying computer technology. and administrative skills to the information processing requirements of organizations.to analyze. design. . and manage computerized information systems in an organizational environment.

either individual or organizational. • MIS primarily focuses on the role that computers play in human settings. .MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM • MIS integrates business and computing.

• The MIS is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations.FEW MORE • The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. • The MIS is defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization. • The MIS is defined as a Computer based Information System. the management and the decision making function in the organization. .

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM The Most Important Course in the Business School! David M. Kroenke .

. • It fulfills the needs of blood supply to human body in normal course and also in crisis.ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM • The role of the MIS in an organization can be compared to the role of heart in the body. • In the body the heart plays the role of supplying pure blood to all the elements of the body including the brain. It regulates and controls the incoming impure blood. • The information is the blood and MIS is the heart In organization. processed. • The MIS plays exactly the same role in the organization. processes it and sends it to the destination in the quantity needed. • The heart works faster and supplies more blood when needed. The system ensures that an appropriate data is collected from the various sources. and sent further to all the needy destinations.

IMPACT OF THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM • Since the MIS plays a very important role in the organization. it creates an impact on the organization‟s functions. performance and productivity .

• Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. employees' performance record etc. . The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations.ADVANTAGES • Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports.

. The consumer buying trends and behaviours can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company.ADVANTAGES • The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. • Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities.

.MAJOR IN MIS • MIS degree provides a foundation for the analysis and design of information systems and the knowledge of application software to develop business solutions.

The rapid rate of change in the information systems world provides professionals with constant opportunities to learn and grow. • • • • . Positions in Information Systems People who become experts in the MIS area are qualified for a large and growing number of prestigious. Fun . Because information systems are more strategically important now than ever.Information Systems professionals make a significant contribution to the competitiveness and well-being of the organizations in which they work. Challenge . skilled professionals who understand information systems and business are in high demand. well paid jobs with excellent long-term career potential world-wide.Top MIS graduates command very competitive salaries. High salaries .MIS majors are intelligent and dynamic people who can interface well with both humans and machines. Job satisfaction .REASONS FOR MAJORING IN MIS • High placement rate -Demand for computer-savvy business people and business-savvy technical people is met in the MIS major.

They enjoy working with people and are able to communicate well. MIS students have a placement rate of 95% within two months of graduation! Top MIS graduates command very competitive salaries. The average total compensation for IT jobs is around $120. Occupational Outlook Handbook. MIS majors are intelligent and dynamic people who can interface well with both humans and machines. High salaries Job satisfaction Fun Challenge .640 (Bureau of Labor Statistics.REASONS FOR MAJORING IN MIS High placement rate Information systems are more strategically important now than ever and individuals who understand information systems and business are in high demand. The rapid rate of change in the information systems world provides professionals with constant opportunities to learn and grow. 2010-11 Edition) Management Information Systems professionals make a significant contribution to the competitiveness and well-being of the organizations in which they work. They also help people and interact with a variety of personalities and levels of management/staff.

but also strengthens your overall capacity for career growth: Accounting + MIS = IT Auditor.pdf . Financial Systems Analyst http://www.edu/siau/marketing-mis/Attachment%205. or ERP consultant Marketing + MIS = Marketing Analyst or CRM Analyst Finance + MIS = Technology Analyst.MIS AS A MINOR Don‟t think MIS will apply for your major? Think Again! MIS not only compliments any other major.unl. systems auditor.ait.

industry. Here are just a few examples: • Website management • E-commerce development • Decision support systems • Credit and billing systems • Inventory control systems • Software product development • Knowledge management systems and business analysis .CAREER OPPORTUNITIES MIS graduates will find career opportunities wherever computers are used in business. and government.

TYPICAL JOB TITLES • • • • • • • • • • • • Systems Analyst End-user Support Analyst Consultant Teacher-Trainer Technical Support Network Analyst IT Specialist Programmer Database Specialist Application Developer Information Security Manager Web/E-commerce System Developer .

• Information-technology professionals are among the most sought-after talent in the job market today - but companies seek candidates with solid speaking and writing skills because presentations to clients and working with sales and marketing teams are part of the normal job requirements.

• There are a lot of different profiles, but there are some traits found make great MIS professionals. • • • • • • • • Are good problem solvers Like to work with people Can think strategically about technology Like responsibility for developing and then implementing their ideas Can bridge both technology and business Can see both details and the big picture Are excellent communicators Can manage time and resources well

• • • • • • Leadership skills Ability to work well in teams Ability to work with members of other disciplines A proactive approach to client services Ability to imagine and effect innovation Resourcefulness

Social Implications of Information and Information Technology • • • • • • National policy Standards and regulations Copyright International regulations Consumer protection Privacy • Consulting. Training • Continuing education • Instructional systems. depending on the career you are pursuing: • Policy making. you may also wish to acquire some of the following additional skills.ADDITIONAL SKILLS Due to the diversity of jobs open to MIS graduates. computer-aided instruction • Distributed education . Counseling • Education.

ADDITIONAL SKILLS • Development • Long-range planning • Product development • Information Dissemination • • • • Selective dissemination Agenda setting Electronic Publishing Mass communication channels • Business Entrepreneurship • Marketing and Sales • Market research • Promotion • Advertising .

investment trust companies. medical schools Book and periodical publishers Database publishers Trade and professional associations Advertising agencies Research institutes.ORGANIZATIONS LOOKING FOR MIS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Federal information organizations Local and state governments International agencies Universities and colleges Health care centers and hospitals. market exchanges . laboratories Insurance companies Foundations Legal services Banks.

ORGANIZATIONS LOOKING FOR MIS • • • • • • • • • • Large and small industries Business firms Museums in the arts. theater and motion picture Information centers and information analysis centers Abstracting/indexing companies Clearinghouses. referral centers Communications industry: newspapers. wire services. radio. humanities and science Historical agencies Consulting firms Performing arts: music and dance. television Information utilities Computing centers Networks and consortia Information brokers • • • • .

the MIS become a safe application in the organization. • The ability of a computer system to provide security of data brings a confidence in the management in the storage of data on a magnetic media in an impersonal mode. • It provides an access to the selected information through a password and layered access facilities.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AND COMPTER • The MIS relies heavily on the hardware and software capacity of the computer and its ability to process. • The computer system provides the facilities such as READ ONLY where you cannot delete to UPDATE. With this ability. retrieve communicate with no serious limitations. The confidence nature of the data and information can be maintained in a computer system. .

applied Generic job title Typical starting job title Business systems analyst Career goals Senior organizational manager Programming manager College home Business Science Engineering .DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MIS AND CS (COMPUTER SCIENCE)? • Maybe it'd be useful to compare MIS to some of the other fields related to information technology. MIS (management information systems) Focus Objective Core skill Organization More efficient or effective business Problem solving Determine business requirements for information systems Balanced Analyst/Designer CS (computer science) Software Reliable computer program Logic/procedures ECE (electrical computer engineering) Product Improved engineered product Engineering Core task Determine information Deliver information systems to processing requirements of meet defined requirements devices Applied Builder Application programmer Balanced Architect and Builder Engineer Senior engineering or product manager Theoretical vs.

• Information System . and technology. It includes computers and networking equipment. An information system has an information technology component that interacts with the people and processes components. .refers to the interaction between people.INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY VS.represents the various types of hardware and software used in an information system. processes. INFORMATION SYSTEM • Information Technology (IT) .

MOTIVATION Technology is being used by more and more companies as a strategic advantage – employers are looking for employees who are familiar with the technology Are you ready? .

. The information we need is not available. The information we want is not the information we need.INFORMATION IS CRITICAL The information we have is not what we want.

WHAT IS MIS? • Right Information • To the right person • At the right place • At the right time • In the right form • At the right cost .

.WHY NEED INFORMATION? To ensure effective and efficient decision .making leading to prosperity of the Organisation.


g. accounting data – Payroll data. . the management saw the potential of computers to process large amounts of data speedily and accurately. • The departments that were involved with such activities were known as Electronic Data Processing (EDP)departments. The focus of EDP was Record Keeping e. In the 50‟s and 60‟s.HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT • The concept of MIS has changed substantially over the years.

• There was a shift in the philosophy. there was a discernible shift from data to information. The focus was not on data but on the analysis of Organization data.HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT • In the 70‟s. right information in right time to right people . • Such a concept came to be widely known as „Management Information System‟.

• The 80‟s saw the Personal Computer (PC) revolution. . • This led to the emerge of Decision Support Systems (DSS). • The Personal Computer & the desk-top metaphor changed the picture completely. • The biggest pay-off for such direct use was the “what-if” analysis capability.HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT • In the 70‟s the top management relied on the staff of EDP & MIS to supply the necessary information.

• Combined with DSS philosophy the expert systems could supply a superior class of managerial information support. . known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBS).HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT • The information and decision hungry managers of 80‟s saw a huge potential in the expert systems as a result of spectacular growth in the Artificial Intelligence area.

• Attempts were made to provide information to top management as well. known as Executive Information System (EIS). . • The MIS/DSS/KBS target the middle management.HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT • The EDP targeted the operational level of management.

Smaller. • 4) enterprise computing. and • 5) cloud computing. more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run their own computing centers in-house.DEVELOPMENT • Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of MIS evolution corresponding to five phases in the development of computing technology: • 1) mainframe and minicomputer computing. • 2) personal computers. . • 3) client/server networks. • The first (mainframe and minicomputer) era was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers. As technology advanced these computers were able to handle greater capacities and therefore reduce their cost.IBM supplied the hardware and the software. these computers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them .

• As the complexity of the technology increased and the costs decreased. In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to personal computers and relatively low cost computers were becoming mass market commodities. the need to share information within an enterprise also grew. • The fourth (enterprise) era enabled by high speed networks. tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure. allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have cost tens of thousands of dollars. . giving rise to the third (client/server) era in which computers on a common network were able to access shared information on a server. This allowed for large amounts of data to be accessed by thousands and even millions of people simultaneously.DEVELOPMENT • The second (personal computer) era began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices. This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet.

tablet PC's. led to new levels of mobility in which managers access the MIS remotely with laptops. . This. along with high speed cellphone and wifi networks. and smartphones.CLOUD COMPUTING • The fifth and latest (cloud computing) era of information systems employs networking technology to deliver applications as well as data storage independent of the configuration. location or nature of the hardware.

Focus on Data OAS .Focus on Communication MIS .Focus on Decision Support EIS .Focus on Consultation • AI .EDP .Focus on self-learning / thinking systems • • • • • .Focus on Information DSS .Focus on Decision Support for Top Management • ES .




users.THE COMPONENTS OF MIS • HARDWARE Input and output devices constitute the hardware components of MIS • SOFTWARE The programs and applications that convert data into machine-readable language are known as software • PROCEDURES Procedures are sets of rules or guidelines. and many other computer professionals who utilize the computer-based information systems are the personnel in a management information system . which an organization establishes for the use of a computer-based information system • PERSONNEL The computer experts. programmers. analysts. managers. database managers.

AND WISDOM • According to Russell Ackoff. the content of the human mind can be classified into five categories: .DATA. INFORMATION. a systems theorist and professor of organizational change. KNOWLEDGE.

. "what". provides answers to "who". and "when" questions • Knowledge: application of data and information. "where". answers "how" questions • Understanding: appreciation of "why" • Wisdom: evaluated understanding.• Data: symbols • Information: data that are processed to be useful.

. In computer parlance. It does not have meaning of itself. It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself). It can exist in any form..A FURTHER ELABORATION OF ACKOFF'S DEFINITIONS FOLLOWS: • Data. data is raw. usable or not.. a spreadsheet generally starts out by holding data.

.A FURTHER ELABORATION OF ACKOFF'S DEFINITIONS FOLLOWS: • Information. In computer parlance.. but does not have to be. information is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. This "meaning" can be useful.. a relational database makes information from the data stored within it.

A FURTHER ELABORATION OF ACKOFF'S DEFINITIONS FOLLOWS: • Knowledge.) exercise some type of stored knowledge. etc. But when asked what is "1267 x 300". most of the applications we use (modeling. they can not respond correctly because that entry is not in their times table. For example. simulation.. in and of itself. such that it's intent is to be useful. To correctly answer such a question requires a true cognitive and analytical ability that is only encompassed in the next level. This knowledge has useful meaning to them. an integration such as would infer further knowledge. Knowledge is a deterministic process. When someone "memorizes" information (as less-aspiring test-bound students often do). elementary school children memorize.. or amass knowledge of. understanding.. In computer parlance.. then they have amassed knowledge. knowledge is the appropriate collection of information. . They can tell you that "2 x 2 = 4" because they have amassed that knowledge (it being included in the times table). but it does not provide for. the "times table".

A FURTHER ELABORATION OF ACKOFF'S DEFINITIONS FOLLOWS: • Understanding. That is. or in some cases. • The difference between understanding and knowledge is the difference between "learning" and "memorizing". It is the process by which I can take knowledge and synthesize new knowledge from the previously held knowledge. People who have understanding can undertake useful actions because they can synthesize new knowledge. .. understanding is an interpolative and probabilistic process. from what is previously known (and understood). It is cognitive and analytical. In computer parlance. knowledge and understanding itself. understanding can build upon currently held information. AI systems possess understanding in the sense that they are able to synthesize new knowledge from previously stored information and knowledge.. at least new information.

where and when.• Typical questions in relation to data and information include who. while questions relating to knowledge include how and why. . what.

ethical codes. in general. It calls upon all the previous levels of consciousness. goes far beyond understanding itself. and specifically upon special types of human programming (moral. etc. will never possess a machine). the process by which we also discern.). a soul is something that. or as I see it. and will never have the ability to posses wisdom. and in doing so. Unlike the previous four levels. wisdom is an extrapolative and non-deterministic. It beckons to give us understanding about which there has previously been no understanding. or judge. Wisdom is a uniquely human state. for it resides as much in the heart as in the mind. to which there can be no humanly-known answer period.. And a soul is something machines will never possess (or perhaps I should reword that to say. It is the essence of philosophical probing. between right and wrong. wisdom requires one to have a soul. . nonprobabilistic process. it asks questions to which there is no (easilyachievable) answer. and in some cases. I personally believe that computers do not have.. good and bad. Wisdom is therefore.A FURTHER ELABORATION OF ACKOFF'S DEFINITIONS FOLLOWS: • Wisdom.

. Within an organization.WISDOM • the ability to identify truth and make correct judgments on the bases of previous knowledge. experience and insight. intellectual capital or organizational wisdom is the application of collective knowledge.




Office Information Systems (OIS) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Executive Information Systems (ESS) Expert Systems (ES) Group Support System (GSS) Knowledge Management System (KMS) Management Reporting system (MRS) . 3. 4. 2. 5. 8. 6. 7. 9.GENERALLY CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES: 1.

. multimedia systems. file transfer and even group decisions can be achieved by Office Information Systems. Voice mail. electronic mail.OFFICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS (OIS) • OIS is a system designed to support office tasks with information technology. video conferencing. The final goal for OIS is to have an office environment where no paper is used (paperless environment).

TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS) • TPS is an information system that capture and process data generated during the day-to-day transactions of an organization. . orders or reservations. payments. Example: Deposits.

. • It is recommended that a transaction processing system should pass the ACID test. modify. • A transaction is an event that generates or modifies data that is eventually stored in an information system. store.TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS) • TPSs collect. and retrieve the transactions of an organization.

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) • MIS is an information system that generates accurate. supervise activities and track progress. timely and organized information so that managers can make decisions. . solve problems.

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) • DSSs serve the management. which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance. • Decision support systems can be either fully computerized. . human or a combination of both. operations. and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions.

interest rates. populationtrends. • External sources • . cost of new housing construction / raw material pricing.DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) • DSS is an information system designed to help the user reach a decision when a decision making situation arises. DSS uses data from internal / external sources. inventory. • . manufacturing. • Internal sources • -sales.or financial for an organizations database.

• An executive information system (EIS) is a type of management information system intended to facilitate and support the information and decision-making needs of senior executives by providing easy access to both internal and external information relevant to meeting the strategic goals of the organization. ratios and other managerial statistics.EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS(EIS) • EIS is designed to support the information needs of executive managers. It is commonly considered as a specialized form of decision support system (DSS) . Information in an EIS are presented in charts and tables that show trends.

(Speech recognition and creative responses) .EXPERT SYSTEMS (ES) • ES is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making processes for those who have less expertise. • Example: Artificial Intelligence (AI) the application of human intelligence to computers.

MANAGEMENT REPORTING SYSTEM (MRS) • The main objective of management reporting systems (MRS) is to provide lower and middle management with printed or electronic reports and with inquiry capabilities to help maintain operational and management control of the enterprise. .

a collaboration technology designed to support meetings and group work .GROUP SUPPORT SYSTEM (GSS) • Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are a class of electronic meeting systems. .

locates knowledge sources. captures and uses knowledge.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (KMS) • Knowledge management systems refer to any kind of IT system that stores and retrieves knowledge. improves collaboration. or in some other way enhances the KM process. . mines repositories for hidden knowledge.

• A Knowledge Management System (KMS) is a computerized system designed to support the creation. . Such a system contains a central repository of information that is well structured and employs a variety of effective and easy to use search tools that users can use to find answers to questions quickly. storage. and dissemination of information.

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