Equations
P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
IIT Delhi
Evaluation of the influence of Small Regions .
Heinrich Blasius  1907
Boundary Layer Equations
Consider the flow over a parallel flat plate.
Assume twodimensional, incompressible, steady flow
with constant properties.
Neglect body forces and viscous dissipation.
The flow is nonreacting and there is no energy
generation.
The governing equations for steady two dimensional
incompressible fluid flow with negligible viscous
dissipation:
Boundary Conditions
s
T T v u y at = = = = & 0 , 0 0
= = = T T v u u y as & 0 ,
= = = = T T v u u x at & 0 , 0
Scale Analysis
Define characteristic parameters:
L : length
u
: free stream velocity
T
=
u
u
u
*
=
u
v
v
*
s
s
T T
T T
u
2
*
=
u
p
p
v
L u
= Re
Similarity Parameters:
o
v
= Pr
Pr Re = Pe
0
*
*
*
*
=
c
c
+
c
c
y
v
x
u
2
*
* 2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Re
1
y
u
x
p
y
v
v
x
u
u
L
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
2
*
2
*
*
*
*
Pr Re
1
y
y
v
x
u
L
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c u u u
0
*
*
=
c
c
y
p
Boundary Layer Equations
Similarity Solution for Flat Plate Boundary Layer
2
*
* 2
*
*
*
*
*
*
Re
1
y
u
y
u
v
x
u
u
L
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
*
*
*
*
&
x
v
y
u
c
c
=
c
c
=
Similarity variables :
( )
*
*
&
x
u
y
u
x
u
f
v
q
v
= =
3
*
3
2 *
2
* * *
2
*
Re
1
y
y x y x y
L
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c c
c
c
c
0 2
2
2
3
3
= +
q q d
f d
f
d
f d
Substitute similarity variables:
Boundary conditions:
( ) 1 and 0 0
0
= = =
= = q q
q q d
df
f
d
df
3
*
3
2 *
2
* * *
2
*
Re
1
y
y x y x y
L
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c c
c
c
c
Blasius Solution
The differential equation is solved numerically and the solution
is
Boundary layer thickness : The boundary layer thickness is
defined as the distance from surface at u/u
f
0.0
0 0 0.33206
0.2
0.00664 0.6641 0.33199
0.4
0.02656 0.13277 0.33147
0.6
0.05974 0.19894 0.33008
0.8
0.10611 0.26471 0.32739
1.0
0.16557 0.32979 0.32301
2.0
0.65003 0.62977 0.26675
3.0
1.39682 0.84605 0.16136
4.0 2.30576 0.95552 0.06424
5.0 3.28329 0.99155 0.01591
5.2 3.48189 0.99425 0.01134
5.4 3.68094 0.99616 0.00793
5.6 3.88031 0.99748 0.00543
5.8 4.07990 0.99838 0.00365
6.0 4.27964 0.99898 0.00240
7.0 5.27926 0.99992 0.00022
x
x
Re
5 . 5
~
o
Where:
x u
x
= Re
u
1
and , x o v o o
Blasius Similarity Solution
Conclusions from the Blasius solution:
5 . 5 ~ = =
x
u
x
u
y
v
o
v
q
Variation of Reynolds numbers
All Engineering Applications
Laminar Velocity Boundary Layer
as u
v
t
=
= =
c
c
= 332 . 0 ) 0 ( ' '
0
Surface shear stress
Laminar Thermal Boundary Layer: Blasius Similarity Solution
Boundary conditions: ( ) ( ) 1 0 0 ~ = o u u
2
*
2
*
*
*
*
Pr Re
1
y
y
v
x
u
L
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c u u u
=T T
s
Similarity Direction
q
Direction of similarity
x
u
y
v
q
0
2
Pr
2
2
= +
q
u
q
u
d
d
f
d
d
The equation for u is linear, and it is first order in du/dq . Let
In solving the equation, we have the following endpoint
conditions:
q
u
,
d
d
=
0
2
Pr
= + ,
q
,
f
d
d
( ) ( ) 1 0 0 ~ = o u u
A firstorder equation can get the following solution:
) (
2
r F
pr
Ce
= ,
}
=
q
0
) ( ) ( ds s f r F where
We integrate once more to get u, using the fact that u vanishes
at q = 0. The result is
( )
( )
}
=
q
q u
0
2
C dr e
r F
pr
We can evaluate C by using the condition that u should go to 1 as
q goes to infinity. This gives
( )
}
=
0
2
1
C
dr e
r F
pr
Substituting the expression for C, we get the final answer for
u:
( )
( )
( )
}
}
=
0
2
0
2
dr e
dr e
r F
pr
r F
pr
q
q u
Local convection heat transfer coefficient:
0
*
*
=
c
c
=
y
fluid
x
y L
k
h
u
( )
0
*
*
=
c
c

.

\

=
y
s
fluid s
y L
T T
k T T h
u
0 =
c
c
=
q
q
u
vx
u
k h
fluid x
( )
}
=
=
c
c
0
2
0
1
dr e
r F
pr
q
q
u
Local Nusselt number:
0 =
c
c

.

\

=
q
q
u
vx
u
k h
fluid x
0
0 0
Re
=
=
c
c
=
c
c

.

\

=
c
c

.

\

= =
q
q q
q
u
q
u
v q
u
v
x
fluid
x
x
x u
x
u
x
k
x h
Nu
3 / 1
Re 332 . 0 pr
k
x h
Nu
x
fluid
x
x
= =
Average heat transfer coefficient:
} }
= =
L
x
fluid
L
x avg
dx pr
x
k
L
dx h
L
h
0
3 / 1
0
Re 332 . 0
1 1
}
=
L
fluid
avg
x
dx
pr
u
x
k
L
h
0
3 / 1
332 . 0
1
v
x avg
h h 2 =
6 . 0 Re 664 . 0
3 / 1
> = = pr pr
k
L h
Nu
L
fluid
avg
avg
o
y
x
th
o
For large Pr (oils):
Pr > 1000
o
y
x
th
o
For small Pr (liquid metals):
Pr < 0.1
Fluid viscosity greater
than thermal diffusivity
Fluid viscosity less than
thermal diffusivity
A single correlation, which applies for all Prandtl numbers,
Has been developed by Churchill and Ozoe..
100
0468 . 0
1
Re 338 . 0
4
1
3
2
3 / 1
>
(
(


.

\

+
=
x
x
x
Pe
pr
pr
Nu
x avg
Nu Nu 2 =
Transition to Turbulence
When the boundary layer changes from a laminar flow to a turbulent
flow it is referred to as transition.
At a certain distance away from the leading edge, the flow begins to
swirl and various layers of flow mix violently with each other.
This violent mixing of the various layers, it signals that a transition
from the smooth laminar flow near the edge to the turbulent flow
away from the edge has occurred.
Flat Plate Boundary Layer Trasition
Important point:
Typically a turbulent boundary
layer is preceded by a laminar
boundary layer first upstream
need to consider case with
mixed boundary layer
conditions!
(
}
+
}
=
L
xc
turb
xc
lam x
dx h dx h
L
h
1
0
Turbulent Flow Regime
For a flat place boundary layer becomes turbulent at Re
x
~
5 X 10
5
.
The local friction coefficient is well correlated by an
expression of the form
7
x
5
1
,
10 Re Re 059 . 0 s =
x x f
C
Local Nusselt number: 60 0.6 Re 029 . 0
3 / 1
5
4
< < = pr pr Nu
x x
Mixed Boundary Layer
In a flow past a long flat plate initially, the boundary layer
will be laminar and then it will become turbulent.
The distance at which this transitions starts is called critical
distance (X
c
) measured from edge and corresponding
Reynolds number is called as Critical Reynolds number.
If the length of the plate (L) is such that 0.95 s X
c
/L s 1,
the entire flow is approximated as laminar.
When the transition occurs sufficiently upstream of the
trailing edge, X
c
/L s 0.95, the surface average coefficients
will be influenced by both laminar and turbulent boundary
layers.
X
c
L
Leading
Edge
Trailing
Edge
+ =
} }
L
x
x turb
x
x lam L avg
c
c
dx h dx h
L
h
,
0
, ,
1
3
1
5
1
5
4
0
2
1
2
1
,
0296 . 0 332 . 0 pr dx
x
dx u
x
dx u
L
k
h
L
x
x
L avg
c
c

.

\

+

.

\

=
} }
v v
On integration:
3
1
5
4
5
4
2
1
,
Re Re 037 . 0 Re 664 . 0 pr Nu
c
x L
c
x
L avg
(

.

\

+ =
3
1
5
4
,
Re 037 . 0 pr A Nu
L
L avg
(
=
For a smooth flat plate: Re
xc
= 5 X 10
5
3
1
5
4
,
871 Re 037 . 0 pr Nu
L
L avg
(
=
For very large flat plates: L >> X
c
, in general for Re
L
> 10
8
3
1
5
4
,
Re 037 . 0 pr Nu
L
L avg
=
Cylinder in Cross Flow
Cylinder in Cross Flow
Smooth circular cylinder
where
Valid over the ranges 10 < Re
l
< 10
7
and 0.6 < Pr < 1000
Array of Cylinders in Cross Flow
The equivalent diameter is calculated as four
times the net flow area as layout on the tube
bank (for any pitch layout) divided by the wetted
perimeter.
For square pitch:
For triangular pitch:
Number of tube centre lines in a Shell:
D
s
is the inner diameter of the shell.
Flow area associated with each tube bundle between baffles is:
where A
s
is the bundle cross flow area, D
s
is the inner diameter of
the shell, C is the clearance between adjacent tubes, and B is the
baffle spacing.
the tube clearance C is expressed as:
Then the shellside mass velocity is found with
s
shell
shell
A
m
G
=
Shell side Reynolds Number:
ShellSide Heat Transfer Coefficient