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The Ohio State University Food Science and Technology Instructor : Dr. David B. Min
The objective of this course is to teach students the role of flavor chemistry in food quality. Chemical structures and formation of flavor compounds, organic, bio, and analytical chemistries involved in flavor research, the effects of processing, packaging and storage conditions on the flavor quality and stability of foods, and current research related to flavor are covered.
Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
1. Understand Chemical reactions involved in flavor compounds formation in natural and processed food. 2. Comprehend the effects of food components, processing parameters and storage conditions on flavor quality of foods.
3. Understand principles, techniques and applications of analytical instruments involved in flavor analysis.
6. processing parameters. . packing materials and storage conditions for optimum quality and stability. Specify the flavor qualities of raw ingredients. Optimize ingredient concentration. 5.4. Develop simple research programs of flavor chemistry.
Evaluation Midterm Examinations (2) Final Examination Home Work and Class Participation 40% 30% 30% .
Reconstitution of flavor compounds 4.Relationship between physical properties and its flavor Objectives of Flavor Chemistry IV.Flavor of foods 3.1.Mechanism for the formation of flavor compounds and precursors in foods 6. . III.Chemical compounds responsible for food flavor 2. II. Introduction I. Definition of Flavor Classification of Food Flavor Scope of Flavor Chemistry 1.Precursors of the flavor compounds 5.
Continuous solvent extraction 3.Headspace analysis 2. V. Objective Prerequisites Apparatus for Isolation 1. V. . VI. Isolation and Separation of Flavor Compounds I. III.2.Steam distillation and continuous solvent extraction Extraction and Concentration Preliminary and Final Fractionation Dynamic Headspace analyzer Solid Phase Microextraction Analysis IV. II.
II. IV.Pyridines 5.Pyrroles 3.Thiophenes 4. Introduction of Spectrometric Analyses Ultra Violet Spectrometry Infrared Spectrometry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry 1. III.Pyrazines . Flavor Identification by Spectrometric Methods I.3. V.Furans 2.
IV. V. Manufacture of Food Flavor I. Natural or Imitation Flavor Problems of Using Natural Flavor Disadvantages of Using Imitation Flavor Advantages of Imitation Flavor Methods in Synthetic Flavor Reconstitution . II. III.4.
II. Chemistry of Flavor Precursors I. III. Flavor Compounds from Carbohydrates and Proteins Thermal Degradation of Vitamin B1 Lipid Oxidation Flavor Generated from Enzymatic Method. Microbiological Reaction.5. and Biogenesis . IV.
Heated flavor 4.Biological pathways of fat in cheese flavor 3.2-Butanone and 2-Butanol formation from diacetyl and acetone 6.Lactone formation 8.Sunlight flavor II.Isolation.Biochemical pathways of cheese flavor formation from protein 5.Reaction products of methionine 4. separation and identification of cheese flavor 2.Absorbed flavor 6. Cheese Flavor 1.Rancid flavor 3.Oxidized flavor 2.Mechanisms of methyl ketone formation .Biochemical pathways of cheese flavor formation from lactose 7. Dairy Products Flavor Chemistry I.Microbiological flavor 5.6. Milk Flavor 1.
and Identification of Roast Beef Flavor Simulated Meat Flavor Formation III. Separation. II. . Introduction Effect of Psychrotropic Bacteria on the Volatile Compounds of Raw Beef 1.Effects of psychrotropic bacteria on the volatile compounds of aseptic raw ground beef Isolation. Meat Flavor Chemistry I.Volatile compounds of aseptic raw ground beef 3.Introduction 2.7.
Physical and Chemical Stability of Flavor Compounds of Lipid Food Effects and Interactions of Carbohydrates with Flavor Compounds Interactions of Proteins with Flavor Compounds . Interaction of Flavor Compounds with Foods I.8. III. II.
Packaging and Flavor Compounds Interaction I. Sorption of Orange Flavor Compounds by Packaging Materials . Effects of Packaging Materials on the Flavor Quality of Food II.9.
Favor Compounds and Solvent Interaction I.10. II. Commercial Cherry Flavor and Solvent Interaction Acetal Formation .
” . Flavor also denotes the sum of the characteristics of the material which produces that sensation. INTRODUCTION I. and temperature receptors in the mouth. perceived principally by the senses of taste and smell.1. and ingestion of a food. acceptance. “ Flavor is one of the three main sensory properties which are decisive in the selection. Definition of Flavor 1.” 2. and also by the general pain. tactile. “Flavor is the sensation produced by a material taken in the mouth.
Stimulus Senses Sensory Response Taste Food Odor Flavor .
II. . Chemical compounds responsible for food flavor 1) Even distribution: Brandy 2) Star compound: A star compound can not be identical to the total true flavor but is close and can not produce the true flavor without the star compound. Scope of Flavor Chemistry 1.
Almond: Benzoaldehyde CHO .
Green pepper: 2-Methoxy-3-isobutyl-pyrazine N N OCH3 CH2CH CH3 CH3 .
Vanilla: 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzolaldehyde CHO OCH3 OH .
Cucumber: 2-Trans-6-cis-nonadienal CH 2 CH CH 3 2 C C H H CHO C C CH 2 H H .
Reversion Rancid Flavor of Soybean Oil: 2-Pentylfuran and 2-Pentenylfuran O (CH 2)4 CH 3 .
2. Flavor of Foods 1) Desirable flavor orange juice potato chip roast beef 2) Undesirable flavor (off-flavor) oxidized stale rancid warmed-over .
Precursors of Flavor Compounds Linoleate 2-pentylfuran .3.
White fluffy powder Oil broil stew Amino acid + Sugar Water beef broth Maillard reaction .1) Non-enzymatic reaction Precursor of beef flavor can be isolated as a white fluffy powder.
2) Enzymatic reaction Processed banana no fresh banana flavor enzyme extracted from banana peel Fresh banana flavor .
meat flavor (boiled beef) S H3 C 5 1 S 3 2 S 4 CH 3 3.4.4-trithiolane .the result of plant metabolism through enzymatic reaction. 2) Raw meat must be heated before it develops any organoleptically acceptable flavor. Mechanisms for Flavor Compounds Formation and Precursors in Foods 1) Volatile flavors developed in most food plants mainly at the ripening stage . 5-Dimethyl-1.2.
Model Studies .
Enhance the desirable food flavor. Elimination of the undesirable food flavor. c. b. a. .Apply the knowledge we gained from the mechanism and precursor studies to processed food. Application of heated model system to processed foods.
Relationship between Physical Properties of Compound and Flavor B.0 0.P.7 131.012 n-propanol n-butanol n-hexanal CH3-S-CH3 61.(0C) Solubility in H2O g/100 ml 20.0 37.07 0.0 75.17 0.5 .5.5 insoluble Sense of smell (ppm) 0.0 4.03 0.
Odor Threshold (ppm) in Water 2-t-pentenal 2-t-hexanal 2-t-heptanal 2-t-octenal 2-t-nonenal 2-t-decenal 2-t-undecenal 2.3 10.0 7.0 3.0 The series has an increase b.2 33.8 150. and decreased solubility in H2O .0 14.p.
7 2.7 .Effect of Medium on the Vapor Compositions of Flavor Compounds Headspace Analysis Compound (200ppm) acetone 2-butanone 2-pentanone 2-hexanone 2-heptanone Water (peak area) 10 14 22 29 24 Corn oil (peak area) 47 11 5.7 0.
2-pentyl furan 3. To restore the fresh flavor to a processed food 4. 5. To produce new foods with special flavor such as potato chip flavor. To understand the chemical composition of natural flavors and the mechanism of their formation. Reversion rancid flavor in soybean oil: hexenal. 2. To improve the flavor of food by the addition of synthetic flavor.IV. . Objectives of Flavor Chemistry 1. To retard or prevent the development of the offflavors in foods.
To specify raw material and to control quality of food products. 7. OH CH 3 C CH 3 CH CH 2 CH 2 C CH3 CH CH 2 Ceylon tea contains cis-hexenol. 8. To assist geneticist to breed food raw material with improved flavor compounds or flavor precursors. India tea doesn’t contain cishexenol . The price of tea can be correlated with GLC peak of linalool.6. To improve flavor by the acceleration of reactions which produce desirable flavor compound (onion flavor: pH 5~7).
milk wine. celery aromatic lachrymogenic hot unfermented flavors fermented flavors compounded flavors cinnamon. peppermint onion. banana lettuce. beer. Classification of Food Flavors Flavor Class Fruit flavor Subdivision Representative Example citrus-type flavors (terpeny) grapefruit.II. raspberry. ginger juices. orange berry-type flavors (non-terpeny) apple. tea soft drinks Vegetable flavors Spice flavors Beverage flavors . garlic pepper.
toasted. snack foods. baked flavors coffee. clams olive oil. butter fat broth beef bouillon vegetable legume. fried flavors processed meat products roasted.Flavor Class Meat flavors Fat flavors Cooked flavors Subdivision mammal flavors sea food flavors Representative Example Processed flavors Stench flavors lean beef fish. processed cereals cheese . coconut fat. pork at. potatoes fruit marmalade smoky flavors ham broiled.
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