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Color Image Processing

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RGB image
• RGB image represents each pixel color as a set of three
values, representing the red, green, and blue intensities
that make up the color.
• The RGB image range values are [0,1] and [0,255] for
class double, uint8 respectively.

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Example RGB

Original Image R-Component

G-Component Color and wavelet B-Component 3


The RGB Color Model
If R,G, and B are represented with 8 bits (24-bit RGB
image), the total number of colors is (28 )3=16,777,216

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Primary and secondary
colors
• primary colors:
       R – red
        G – green
       B – blue
• Secondary colors
 M – magenta (= red + blue)
       C – cyan (= green + blue)
      Y – yellow (= red + green)
 

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Indexed Image
• An indexed image is where the pixel
values are indices to elements in a
colour map or colour lookup
table.
• Index image has two components: a
data matrix of images and color map
matrix.

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Displaying indexed images
>> I2=I(:,:,2); % green values of I
>> image(I2)Matlab considers I2 as an indexed
image as it doesn’t contain entries for
>> colorbar % display colourmap

Index

Associate
d color

Colour
Looku
p Table

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Displaying indexed images
(continued)
Red =1.0,
Green =
1.0, Blue
• change colourmap =1.0,
corresponds
to index 64
>> colormap(gray)
Red =0.0,
Green =
Type >>help graph3d to get a list 0.0, Blue =
of built-in colourmaps. Experiment 0.0,
with different built-in colourmaps. corresponds
to index 1
Define your own colourmap Red =1.0,
mymap by creating a matrix (size Green =
m x 3 ) with red, green, blue 1.0, Blue
entries. Display an image using =1.0,
your colourmap. corresponds
to index 255
• scale colourmap
Red =0.0,
>> imagesc(I2) Green =
0.0, Blue =
0.0,
corresponds
to index 0

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RGB values of basic color

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IPT Functions for converting between
RGB, Indexed, and gray scale
intensity images

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Converting to other color
spaces
• NTSC color spaces
• The YCbCr color space
• The HSV color space
• The CMY and CMYK spaces
• The HSI color spaces

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The HSI Color Model
• Hue—the color
• Saturation—the amount of white that
is mixed with the hue
• Intensity—expresses the brightness
or luminance of the chromaticity
(=hue and saturation)

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Brightness, Hue, and
Saturation
• Brightness is a synonym of intensity
• Hue represents the impression related to the
dominant wavelength of the color stimulus
• Saturation expresses the relative color purity
(amount of white light in the color)
• Hue and Saturation taken together are called the
chromaticity coordinates (polar system)
• Matlab conversion function: rgb2hsv

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HSI Color Model

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Converting from RGB to HSI

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Example HSI

Original Image Hue

Saturation Color and wavelet Intensity 16


Spacial Filtering of color
images
• The spacial filtering concentrating
mostly on RGB images.
• And basic concepts are applicable to
other color models
• The two examples of linear filtering
– Color image smoothing
– Color image sharpening

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Spacial Filtering of color
images(cont…)
• The linear spacial filtering consists of
the following steps
– Extract the components images
– Filter each components image
individually.
– Reconstruct the filtered RGB image
• In RGB color system, we consider
color image sharpening using the
Laplacian vector.
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Wavelets
• A wavelet is a waveform of
effectively limited duration that has
an average value of zero.
• A wavelet transform is the
representation of a function by
wavelets.
• The wavelets are scaled and
translated copies of a finite-length or
fast-decaying oscillating waveform .
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Wavelets
• Compare wavelets with sine waves,
which are the basis of Fourier
analysis.
• Wavelet transforms are classified into
discrete wavelet transforms (DWTs)
and continuous wavelet transforms
(CWTs).

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Wavelets
• A discrete wavelet
transform (DWT) is any wavelet
transform for which the wavelets are
discretely sampled.
• Wavelet Toolbox provides two
categories of tools:
– Command line functions
– Graphical interactive tools
Waveinfo(wfamily) eg Waveinfo(‘haar’)
Wavemenu
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Fast Wavelet Transform
• The Fast Wavelet Transform is
algorithm designed to turn
a waveform or signal in the time
domain into a sequence of
coefficients based on an orthogonal
basis of small finite waves,
or wavelets.

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Wavelet Toolbox FWT filters and filter
family

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The Haar scaling and wavelet
functions

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Wavelets in image
processing
• Compute the two dimensional
wavelet transform of an image.
• Alter the transform coefficients
• Compute the inverse transform

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