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Chapter 4 Socialization

Becoming Human and Humane

- the process of becoming social - develop human potential - and learn culture feral children - wild, lost or abandoned children (basically a myth)

Effects of Deprivation
Harlows rhesus monkeys wire or cloth mothers isolated children - without language, there can be no shared way of life, no culture

Isabelle - 6-1/2 years old, mother, deafmute

both isolated, inadequate diet used gestures to communicate After she was found: in 2 months - able to speak in 1 year - could write in 2 years - reached intellectual level of her age

Anna - lived in isolation - no human contact, little attention - 5 years old, discovered in chair, arms tied above her head Genie - locked in room since 20 months old
13-1/2 years old, couldnt speak, didnt know how to chew unable to stand upright IQ of 1 year old

Care of Institutionalized Children

Skeels & Dye

Comparison of treatment- being placed: in care of retarded women or left in orphanage IQ = +28 -30

20 years later (when adults): Educ = 12+ yrs educ below 3rd grade Independence= self-supporting institutionalized Employment = high-level jobs low-level jobs Marital status = married unmarried

Freud - Personality Development

-personality - organized, enduring structure of habits, feelings, attitudes and predispositions id - basic drive, unconscious, instinctive ego - attempt at balance, rational conscious part, mediator superego - internalized social value and EGO norms, conscience, morality

Cooley - Looking Glass Self

imagine how we appear to those around us interpret others reactions develop a self-concept (on-going life process)

Mead Symbolic Interaction

Parts of the Self (Mead): I- spontaneous, active, expressive, innovative me -reflexive, subjective, conventional, internalized societys demands, censor of I part of self

Past experiences

Role Taking - Mead

Interaction based upon symbols
verbal /nonverbal symbols

Imitation - mimic, preparatory Play - take the role of the other 1. -Significant other - close, specific person -see self as an object based upon others needs

Games - take the role of the generalized other -respond to several expectations -adapt behavior to needs of whole -specific situation with (abstract) rules
Teaching kids how to play kickball ooo oooooo Home plate

ooo oooooo




Definition of the Situation (W. I. Thomas)

If things appear to be real, they are real in their consequences. 1. external stimuli 2. past experiences -yours/others, norms, expectations, 3. your interpretation to - t1 - t2 -

Agents of Socialization
Family Schools Peers Mass Media

Social Institutions (contd)

Education - socialize people, teach knowledge and skills, cultural transmission of values, social integration, gate keeping, promote personal and social change

Hidden curriculum teaches students what will be expected of them in a larger society once they graduate.
How to be conventionally good citizens

Structural functionalist: different agents support one another; help achieve common goals Conflict: agents have opposing goals; compete; powerful manipulate others to benefit elite; majority powerless

Mass Media
Mechanism of communication to large populations Significantly shapes public opinion All totalitarian governments attempt to maintain tight control over them

Anticipatory socialization
Learn about, try on a role you might occupy in the future
Job-shadowing Co-op training

Life Course socialization

Childhood Adolescence Young adult Middle years early, late Older years

Rites of passage

Ch. 5 Social Interaction, Groups, Organizations

Status a position occupied in a social system/group. Role the behavior associated with a status
Ideal the expected behavior of a status. Real the actual behavior of someone in that status
status reciprocal status

Role set a cluster of roles attached to a single status

Teacher classmate7 classmate1


Sociology student


classmate5 classmate4


Role Strain
Incompatible role demands
Be suggestive Ideal role Be polite supervisor


Ideal role


Role set

Status set the entire collection of statuses occupied by a person

reciprocal reciprocal

teacher1 parent1 sibling1 employer friend1




parent2 sibling2 coworker friend2

Status set

Role Conflict
When 2 or more statuses occupied at the same time require or expect contradictory role demands on a person
Husband Father

Substance Abuser Son

Ascribed status involuntary, born into, e.g., sex, ethnicity, gender, age Achieved status voluntary, through effort, e.g., education, income Master status the most-influential status, shapes ones life at a given time
Male, 45 yrs. old, surgeon, African-American Female, 31 yrs. old, surgeon, African-American

Interaction, Groups Organizations

Networks and connections Meso, macro (more formal):
The Internet Local civic, sports, and religious organizations Community or national institutions Our nation Global entities

Elements of Social Interaction

Verbal; nonverbal Personal space (4 categories) (Hall):
Intimate distance
Private and affectionate relationships 018 inches

Personal distance
Friends and acquaintances 18 inches4 feet

Social distance
Impersonal business relations 412 feet

Public distance
Used in formal settings o Especially with high-status speakers 12 feet and beyond

Exchange theory social relationships involve a literal give and take. When people interact, they exchange or trade valued resources.
With payoffs, relationships endure and can give rise to various organizational forms. With out payoffs, relationships end.

Rational Choice theory interacting people always try to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

Dramaturgical analysis views interaction as a sort of play in which people present themselves so they appear in the best possible light. roleplaying; impression management. We distinguish between our public selves (front stage) and our true (backstage) selves.

Front Stage


Networks, Groups, and Bureaucracies

Chapter 6

Social network is a bounded set of individuals linked by the exchange of material or emotional resources.
Patterns of exchange determine the boundaries. Members exchange resources more frequently with each other than nonmembers. Think of selves as networking members

Nodes= individuals, groups, organizations, or countries

Social Interaction
Dyad relationship between 2 people
Most intense relationships Most fragile

Triad three people

More stable Alternative relationships
(Georg Simmel)

Primary Group
Primary relationship) -small, personal, face-to-face -deal with whole person -endure over time -informal -sense of belonging (boundary) -trust, obligation

Secondary Group
Secondary group (relationship) -larger oo -segmental -formal -relationships based on contract -specific goal -short-term

In-group members
esteemed, commands loyalty

Out-group excluded,
scorned, competition, opposition

Reference group serves as reference point for making ones evaluations and decisions

Bureaucracy (Max Weber)

An ideal type characterization or summary of characteristics of types of organization (doesnt mean perfect) A large, impersonal organization Regarded as the most efficient type of secondary group.

Bureaucracy (continued)
1. Hierarchy levels of sales authority 2 2. Rules and regulations 1 3. Written documents 4. Thorough and expert training (skills) 5. Division of labor specialization, scope of responsibility 6. Position occupied is independent of the holder
administrator production 3 4 5 personnel 6 7 8

da Boss

Criticisms of Burearcracy
Dehumanization when clients treated as standard cases and personnel as cogs in a giant machine.
Kanter social inclusiveness, shared responsibilities, expanded advancement possibilities

Bureaucratic ritualism workers so preoccupied with rules and regulations until they make it difficult to achieve goals

Criticisms of Bureaucracy (contd)

Oligarchy rule of the few tendency for power to become increasingly concentrated in the hands of people at the top (MichelsIron Law of Oligarchy) Inertia tendency to continue policies even when clients needs change

The Peter Principle In bureaucracies, people may be promoted to their own level of incompetence. Organizational Environment economic, political and cultural factors affecting organization Theory X- typical bureaucratic form Information from top=>down authoritarian (see Weber)

Theory Y- greater involvement of workers (see Kanter, Argyris) information

topdown (both ways), wider flow of information

Theory Z (Ouichi) Japan Emphasized:

Teamwork Holistic involvement Non-specialized training Collective decision-making Hiring and advancement Lifetime security

Deviance and Social Control

Chapter 6

Crime and Deviance

Deviance violation of cultural norms Crime violation of norms enacted into law

Sociological Explanations Deviance occurs when someone departs _ from a norm.






NormsSanctions RulesPunishment/Rewards

Relative Power of groups influences whether something is defined as a crime or deviance Power-- Definition of Influences Crime/Deviance
Public opinion, claimsmakers More powerful groups influence creation of laws and punishments (Golden Rule) Higher proportion of laws apply to crimes against property than against person. Ex.: crimes against women (rape, domestic violence), white collar crime Can result in stigmatization negative disproportionately applied to lower class group members

Social construction of deviance

1. Events occur and considered by public 2. Individual and public opinion formed 3. Claims makers (respected people) con-

sider topic; if highly regarded, broader appeal by public 4. Subject more widely known/discussed 5. Issue re-defined, reconsidered 6. Takes on greater prominence/importance

Types of Deviance and Crime

Informal generally approved, mild sanction,
delivered face to face, e.g., frown, gossip (folkways)

Formal takes place when judicial system

penalizes violation of law, e.g., probation, imprisonment, community service (mores)

Punishment involves social acknowledgement of act; can result in stigma (marker distinguishing from others)

Types (classifications) of deviance and crime: Social diversions minor acts of deviance; perceived as harmless (fads, fashion) Social deviations more serious; agree deviant and harmful; subject to institutional sanction Consensus crimes widely regarded bad; little controversy over seriousness; public agree crime requires severe punishment
Predatory (premeditated murder, rape, ransom kidnapping)

Conflict crimes acts defined by state as illegal, but controversially perceived

Control Theory Hirschi and Gottfredson

Effect of inadequate socialization and poor internalization of norms/values Lacks social control/bonding Attachment affective & emotional ties Involvement for investment of time, energy, ambitions Commitment engage in conventional activities Beliefs internalization of general moral beliefs, norms

Subcultural Theory (Cohen, Cloward,

Collective adaptation to social conditions; problems of access to legitimate methods and goals; opportunity social structure A subculture involved in illegitimate activity, and participation in the criminal subculture socializes others to distinct norms/values
1. 2. 3. Different crimes Rationalizations of behavior Strict conformity within the subculture Exaggerates connection between culture and crime

Learning Theory (Sutherland, Becker)

Differential association criminal/deviant behavior learned through contact with others. Socially-influenced behavior is acquired and sustained through the learning process. If its rewarding and has positive consequences, we are more likely to adopt those views and practices. The more time spent with others involved in criminal/deviant activity, the more likely we learn about criminal values and behaviors.

Labeling Theory Becker [Ballantine calls it

Learning Deviance really labeling] Stigmatizing effect of legal or social labels Interactive process (results from responses of others): 1. Primary label (deviance)- episode provokes social response 2. Secondary label (deviance) commit act again, its observed, resulting in a social response. Major effect on the individual (disgrace), and is incorporated into a persons self-image/identity, thereby promoting additional deviance and stabilizing the deviant role.

Anomie theory (Durkheim)

Structural-functional theory

Normlessness no guidance from society Social disorganization breakdown of norms guiding behavior leads to social disorganization Suicide study (Durkheim, p. 130)
Anomic no guidance Altruistic committed FOR the group Egoistic more personal reasons

Strain theory (Merton)

Strain theorythose with fewer resources are less able to achieve societally shared goals and may resort to deviant behaviors to achieve their desired goals Society has a lack of balance between the cultural goals and the availability of means to successfully (legitimately) obtain those goals.

Motivational theories
Strain theory (Merton) socially acceptable means and goals (lack balance) Institutionalized (p. 157) Means Accept Reject Create New Accept Conformity Innovation -Reject Ritualism Retreatism -Create --Rebellion


Conflict Theory
Deviance is the effect of ones place in the social structure.
Who makes the laws? Who is subject to the laws?

Rich and powerful impose deviant and criminal labels on the less powerful. Golden Rule those with the gold, make the rules.
And are less subject to the same rules, e.g., white collar crime

1. 2. 3.


Victimless crime violation of the law in which no victim steps forward and identified Victimization Survey self-report survey Decline in crime because of: More police on streets & surveillance Decline in proportion of young men <18 Improved economy, lower unemployment Abortion legalized??

Social Control
Apprehension Police Courts 1. Not guilty 2. Guilty probation 3. Guilty incarceration

Punishment Alternatives
Retribution comparable suffering (oldest form)

Deterrence discourage criminality (early modern) View people as rational/ selfinterested (avoid pain)

The Death Penalty

The most controversial method of control The most common argument for using the death penalty, or capital punishment, is to deter people from crime, not only by the person killed, but by others who are deterred because they know this is a possibility. Capital punishment is most common in Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Africa. There is evidence that the death penalty is race and class biased.
A disproportionate number of minority and lower-class individuals are put to death in the United States. It is more likely to be imposed if a white person has been murdered.

(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

Punishment Alternatives (contd)

Rehabilitation reform person to prevent future behavior (modern) intervention Societal protection containment (modern) If unwilling/unable to improve offender, protect society from further deviance [incarceration or execution]

Recidivism repeat offenses

75% likelihood repeat offender

Alternatives to Prison
Building social capital social networks, shared norms, values, and understanding that facilitate cooperation within or among groups and access to important resources Shock probation - release a first-time offender early in the hope that the shock of prison life would deter them Day treatment or halfway houses RestitutionThe offender renders money or service to the victim or community under supervised parole to compensate the victim Privatization of prisonan attempt to turn prisons into more business-like, cost effective institutions
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

Total Institutions
Setting in which individuals are isolated from society and manipulated and controlled by staff All-encompassing governing all of a persons activities Examples: Prisons, military, rehabilitation communities, monasteries, convents



Typically occurs in total institution Rapid, drastic changes to substitute one way of life for another Reduce the individual to an immature state

Degradation ceremony

Erode established identity

Surrender personal possessions Standardized items, clothing Surrender privacy mortification of self


Rebuild new self - manipulate rewards and punishments - duration of stay determined by extent of conformity Acceptance of new identity

Crime and Individuals: Micro-Level Analysis

Ways of measuring crime:
Uniform Crime Reports Self-reported surveys Victimization surveys Triangulation of data leads to the most accurate results

(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

Crime and Organizations: Meso-Level Analysis

Occupational or white-collar crimea violation of the law committed by an individual or group in the course of a legitimate, respected occupation or financial activity Types of occupational crimes: Crimes against the company Crimes against employees Crimes against customers Crimes against the public
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

Crime and Organizations: Meso-Level Analysis

Crimes involving organizations and institutions:
Organized crimeongoing criminal enterprises that have the ultimate purpose of personal economic gain through illegitimate means e.g., sale of illegal goods and drugs, infiltrating legitimate businesses through threats and intimidation, racketeering Transnational organized crime takes place across national boundaries and is becoming an increasing problem
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

National and Global Crime: MacroLevel Analysis

Terrorismpremeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant target by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience (public opinion) International terrorismterrorism practiced in a foreign country Terrorist groups can be religious, statesponsored, left- or right-wing, or nationalist
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

National and Global Crime: MacroLevel Analysis

Global Crimescrimes that involve transnational conglomerates, smuggling of illegal goods and humans, or that violate international laws, treaties, or agreements
World systems perspectivethe cause of deviance lies in the global economy, inequalities between countries, and competition between countries for resources and wealth. Capitalism has caused inequality to rise between core and periphery nations. Periphery nations may resort to unconventional means to meet their goals.
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

National and Global Crime: MacroLevel Analysis

The Internet has led to an increase in global crime.
It provides a wide audience. It gives a space to an underground web of illegal businesses. It supports crime by connecting people to illegal operations. Its difficult to police since law enforcement is unsure of whose jurisdiction it is.
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

Controlling Crime: Social Policy Considerations

Structural-functionaliststhe justice system is important for maintaining order in society Conflict theoriststhe criminal justice system represents crime as a threat from poor people and minorities and disproportionately arrests and sentences them
(c) SAGE Publications Inc., 2011

End Ch. 6